New activity/unrest was reported for 5 volcanoes from May 26 to June 1, 2021. During the same period, ongoing activity was reported for 14 volcanoes.
New activity/unrest: Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA) | Krakatau, Indonesia | Nyiragongo, DR Congo | Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA) | Telica, Nicaragua.
Ongoing activity: Aira, Kyushu (Japan) | Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia) | Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia) | Etna, Sicily (Italy) | Gareloi, United States | Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | Kerinci, Indonesia | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA) | Krysuvik-Trolladyngja, Iceland | Lewotolok, Lembata Island (Indonesia) | Merapi, Central Java (Indonesia) | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | Yasur, Vanuatu.
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 23:00 UTC every Wednesday, these reports are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports about recent activity are published in issues of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA)
52.076°N, 176.13°W, Summit elev. 1740 m
On 27 May AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin was low following a 25 May explosion, and satellite images showed minor steaming and slightly elevated surface temperatures. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Yellow and Advisory, respectively. Seismicity remained low through 1 June; moderately elevated surface temperatures were detected during 29-30 May.
Geological summary: The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.
6.102°S, 105.423°E, Summit elev. 155 m
The Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Anak Krakatau was visible in satellite images drifting SW at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.
Geological summary: The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.
Nyiragongo, DR Congo
1.52°S, 29.25°E, Summit elev. 3470 m
Satellite data and analysis indicated that the lava flows at Nyiragongo during 22-23 May were the result of a N-S trending dike that had intruded beneath the volcano and Goma, and likely extended beneath Lake Kivu. Though lava effusion ceased, intense seismicity continued afterwards and indicated the dike continued to be active, according to GeoRiskA. Ground cracking in the city and damage to buildings from earthquakes continued to be reported. On 27 May authorities mandated an evacuation of the at least 400,000 residents in higher risk areas (about 10 districts) according to news organizations. The total population of Goma is an estimated 670,000 people. Photos in news articles showed masses of people and cars jammed for kilometers on roads leading out of the city. During 28-29 May GeoRiskA reported that seismicity began to decrease and continued a downward trend at least through 1 June; both the seismic data and GPS data indicated that the dike was no longer propagating. A news article noted that residents had begun returning to their homes within a few days.
Humanitarian organizations noted that within five days after lava flow stopped nearly 700 children had been re-united with their families, and more than 200 were in foster care or other transitional facilities. More than 170 families continued to search for missing children. The eruption had destroyed 3,629 homes, 12 schools, and 3 health facilities. More than 20,000 people were displaced and 31 had died. Goma’s international airport remained closed, though one across the border in Rwanda was operating.
Geological summary: One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.
Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA)
51.93°N, 179.58°E, Summit elev. 1221 m
AVO reported that an eruption at Semisopochnoi continued during 25 May-1 June. Steaming from the N crater at Mount Cerberus was visible in satellite images on 25 May. Radar data acquired between 15 and 27 May showed no morphological changes to the active vent. Tremor began to be recorded after AVO field engineers restored the satellite uplink to the seismic stations on 26 May. Field crews on 29 May observed low-level ash plumes rising to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l., and small ash clouds drifting SW were visible in satellite images at around 0810 and 0920. Diffuse ash emissions were visible in satellite imagery at 1110. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were also identified in satellite data. Increased seismic tremor and accompanying low-level ash emissions began at 0945 on 30 May, with ash plumes drifting S at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. at least through 1250. Elevated surface temperatures were detected during 30-31 May, likely from hot material on the crater floor. Seismic data showed low-level continuous tremor and occasional small discrete events. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Geological summary: Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked Mount Cerberus was constructed within the caldera during the Holocene. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the N flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the south side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone could have been recently active.
12.606°N, 86.84°W, Summit elev. 1036 m
INETER reported that a series of 16 small explosions at Telica began at 0508 on 22 May, and produced ash-and-gas emissions that rose 250 m above the crater. Tephra from the plumes fell back down into the crater.
Geological summary: Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately E, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.
Aira, Kyushu (Japan)
31.593°N, 130.657°E, Summit elev. 1117 m
JMA reported that during 24-31 May incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia)
1.693°N, 127.894°E, Summit elev. 1229 m
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 and 29 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Geological summary: Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia)
50.686°N, 156.014°E, Summit elev. 1103 m
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 21 and 23 May that sent ash plumes to 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and S. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 23 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.
Etna, Sicily (Italy)
37.748°N, 14.999°E, Summit elev. 3320 m
INGV reported almost daily episodes of Strombolian activity at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during 24-30 May continued the recent pattern of Strombolian explosions followed by lava flows to the SW and occasional lava fountains. Ash plumes were visible most days, rising to a maximum of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Tephra was collected in Milo (10 km E) on 26 May and in Petrulli (12 km SE) on 30 May.
The first episode of the week began at 2100 on 24 May, intensified during 2235-2345, and ended at 0010 on 25 May. Ash emissions at SEC began 1020 on 25 May, producing a plume that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. Explosions were recorded at 1820 and within 30 minutes Strombolian activity was visible. Activity intensified during 2025-2100 and ended at 2215. Two eruptive episodes were recorded on 26 May, with peaks at 0350 and 1300. An eruptive episode on 27 May was not visually well-documented due to inclement weather, though it reportedly intensified at 1450. Tephra fell in Giarre (17 km ESE), Milo, and Fornazzo (10 km ESE). Another episode began around 0830 on 28 May, intensified around 0900, and then ended at 0930; ashfall was reported in Giarre. Two more eruptive events were recorded that day: during 1740-1815 and a more powerful one during 2115-2305. The last episode of the week began at 0545 on 30 May and lasted for two hours.
Geological summary: Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.
Gareloi, United States
51.79°N, 178.794°W, Summit elev. 1573 m
On 27 May AVO changed the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Gareloi to Green and Normal, respectively, reflecting that communication with seismic stations had been re-established, allowing for the location of earthquakes and detection of unrest.
Geological summary: The 8 x 10 km Gareloi Island, the northernmost volcano of the Delarof Group at the western end of the Andreanof Islands, consists of a stratovolcano with two summits and a prominent SE-trending fissure. The fissure was formed during an eruption in 1929 and extends from the southern summit to the sea. Steep sea cliffs that are cut into rocks of an older, eroded center are found on the SW coast, and submarine deposits of three debris avalanches produced by edifice collapse are found offshore. Young lava flows cover the older volcano from the summit to the coast along three broad axes trending NW, ENE, and S. The 1929 eruption originated from 13 craters along a 4-km-long fissure. Phreatic explosions were followed by the ejection of glassy pumice, lapilli, scoria, and older blocks, as well as by the emission of four short, steep lava flows, one of which reached the SE coast.
Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
54.049°N, 159.443°E, Summit elev. 1513 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 22 and 24 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.
1.697°S, 101.264°E, Summit elev. 3800 m
PVMBG reported that at 0614 on 31 May an ash plume from Kerinci rose 700 m above the summit and drifted NW, based on information from a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Geological summary: Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.
Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)
19.421°N, 155.287°W, Summit elev. 1222 m
On 27 May HVO reported that Kilauea was no longer erupting; the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Yellow and Advisory, respectively. A decreasing rate of lava entering the lake caused the area of the active lava lake to shrink to two small ponds by 11 May. Lava had stopped flowing into the lake sometimes during 11-13 May, and it was completely crusted over by 20 May. Weak inflation and an increase in shallow volcano tectonic earthquakes at the summit that began on 11 May also suggested that magma was staying at depth.
Geological summary: Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
63.917°N, 22.067°W, Summit elev. 360 m
The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 26 May-1 June. Cycles of lava fountaining followed by no activity persisted at the fifth vent. Lava fountains rose a few hundred meters above the vent and lava advanced in the Nátthaga and Geldingadalur valleys. Lava in Nátthaga continued to get closer to Highway 427 (Suðurstrandarvegur) to the S, and buried fiber optic communication cables. Seismic activity had been decreasing; during 21-28 May there were about 90 earthquakes, compared to the 200 events recorded the previous week. According to a news article, an estimated 31 hectares of vegetation had been scorched by fires set by lava and hot ejected material since early May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.
Geological summary: The Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system is described by the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes as an approximately 50-km-long composite fissure swarm trending about N38°E, including a 30-km-long swarm of fissures, with no central volcano. It is one of the volcanic systems arranged en-echelon along the Reykjanes Peninsula west of Kleifarvatn lake. The Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík fissure swarms are considered splits or secondary swarms of the Krýsuvík–Trölladyngja volcanic system. Small shield volcanoes have produced a large portion of the erupted volume within the system. Several eruptions have taken place since the settlement of Iceland, including the eruption of a large basaltic lava flow from the Ogmundargigar crater row around the 12th century. The latest eruption, identified through tephrochronology, took place during the 14th century.
Lewotolok, Lembata Island (Indonesia)
8.274°S, 123.508°E, Summit elev. 1431 m
PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 1 km and drifted W and E during 27-28 and 30-31 May. Rumbling was sometimes heard. Crater incandescence was visible on 31 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Geological summary: The Lewotolok (or Lewotolo) stratovolcano occupies the eastern end of an elongated peninsula extending north into the Flores Sea, connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus. It is symmetrical when viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano's high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Eruptions recorded since 1660 have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater.
Merapi, Central Java (Indonesia)
7.54°S, 110.446°E, Summit elev. 2910 m
BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to be active during 21-27 May. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.265 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of about 11,600 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 15 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 2 km down the SW flank. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 70 times, traveled as far as 1.8 km down the SW flank and once went 800 m SE. The summit lava dome had not changed since observations the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Geological summary: Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.
Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.653°N, 161.36°E, Summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 21-28 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
29.638°N, 129.714°E, Summit elev. 796 m
JMA reported that 47 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim during 21-28 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 700 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.
19.532°S, 169.447°E, Summit elev. 361 m
On 27 May the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that seismic data and recent visual observations at Yasur confirmed ongoing explosions and gas-and-ash emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.
Geological summary: Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.