Since the beginning of the space age, many observations sharply contradict the theories of a gravity-dominated Cosmos, yet recent observations have created even larger holes in those theories. Now it is impossible to cover these holes with any theoretical solution, such as the so-called red giants.
According to the consensus model, a star becomes a red giant in the later part of its life. In this stage, most of the fuel powering nuclear fusion in the core of the star is exhausted. As a result of this deficiency, "gravitational collapse" is induced. In other words, the star would collapse on itself due to a lack of light pressure which is pushing out against the force of gravity.
When this self-collapse takes place, it heats up a shell of hydrogen that surrounds the core. That heat would be sufficient to reignite fusion reaction, causing the star to become bigger as a result of increased light pressure and this process would make the star 1 000-10 000 times more luminous.
However, almost 60% of red giants exhibit variations in their luminosity. The difference in brightness happens over a period of several months to a few years. The Long Secondary Period (LSP), which involves the changing brightness of the star over a longer timescale, remains a mystery. All proposed explanations of this mysterious variability fail to agree with the data of recent observations.
Two ideas were introduced in an attempt to explain the variation in the brightness of red giants. The existence of a companion object, which rotates in a manner that would cause changes in their brightness and the existence of a circumstellar dust cloud that periodically blocks the light coming from the star.
A few years ago, a detailed study carried out by two physicists, working at the school of astronomy and astrophysics at the Australian National University, showed the above proposed theoretical notions to be invalid and fall short of the measured properties of the red giants. In their research, Peter Wood and Christine Nicholls studied 58 variable red giants in the large Magellanic cloud. They used the FLAMES/GIRAFFE Spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large Telescope and combined the information with data from other telescopes like the Spitzer Space Telescope. The combined data clearly refuted the two proposed notions that are supposed to explain the cause of the oscillations in the brightness of the red giants. The results of the study:
- Evidence for mass ejection associated with long secondary periods in red giants.
- Long Secondary Periods in Variable Red Giants
At the beginning of this year, a friend of mine from Australia informed me about an important discovery, based on recently conducted research, by an international group of astronomers and led by the University of Sydney. In my understanding, this discovery about the red giants solves the puzzle of their long secondary periods and at the same time exposes the myth of the theory of Star Formation.
The study revealed that most red giants possess very strong magnetic fields. The researchers used data from NASA’s Kepler mission combined with previous data obtained by researchers from Caltech. The team found that stars only slightly more massive than the Sun possess magnetic fields around 10 million times stronger than Earth’s magnetic field. They said that because these stars hide their magnetic fields within their interiors, it was believed that only a small percentage of stars hosted strong internal magnetic fields. Due to this common belief, the phenomenon has been left out of current models of stellar evolution. The researchers used a method called asteroseismology. It is a technique for measuring stellar oscillations that probes beneath the star’s surface. The team found that certain oscillation frequencies were missing in over half of the red giants because they were suppressed by strong magnetic fields in their cores.
“These findings represent the first ever detection of internal stellar magnetic fields in a large sample of stars, and the results are extraordinary. The prevalence of magnetic fields in stars slightly more massive than the Sun was unexpected and demonstrates that magnetic fields are robust features of stars that influence their evolution and their ultimate demise,” said Jim Fuller from Caltech in Pasadena, California. He added, that “This study focused on red giants, but in the near future, we hope to measure magnetic fields in different types of stars — helium-burning stars and stars in clusters — to gain a better understanding of the coupled evolution of stars and their internal magnetic fields.” Strong magnetic fields discovered in majority of stars
Stars like the Sun puff up and become red giants towards the end of their lives. The red giants ('old' Suns) of the same mass as the Sun do not show strong magnetic fields in their interior, but for stars slightly more massive, up to 60 percent host strong magnetic fields. Credit: University of Sydney
The research was published in the journal Nature, under the title: A prevalence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass stars
From the abstract: "These stars do have convective cores that might produce internal magnetic fields(6), and these fields might survive into later stages of stellar evolution, but information has been limited by our inability to measure the fields below the stellar surface (7)."
The above research is based on the previous work of astronomers from California Institute of Technology:
Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars
“It turns out the gravity waves that we see in the red giants do propagate all the way to the center of these stars,” says co-lead author Matteo Cantiello, a specialist in stellar astrophysics from UC Santa Barbara’s Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP). This conversion from sound waves to gravity waves has major consequences for the tiny shape changes, or oscillations, that red giants undergo. “Depending on their size and internal structure, stars oscillate in different patterns,” Fuller says. In one form of oscillation pattern, known as the dipole mode, one hemisphere of the star becomes brighter while the other becomes dimmer. The authors of the research have coined the term “magnetic greenhouse effect” to describe this phenomenon because it works similarly to the greenhouse effect on Earth, in which greenhouse gases in the atmosphere help trap heat from the sun. The trapping of gravity waves inside a red giant causes some of the energy of the star’s oscillation to be lost, and the result is a smaller than expected dipole mode."
"Gravity waves and magnetic greenhouse effect."
"Gravity waves that we see in the red giants do propagate all the way to the center of these stars."
It's amazing how far institutional physicists will go to support the theoretical mathematical notions that dominate physics. The above interpretation of this astronomical data is just one example of how mainstream astrophysicists manipulate observational data, so they do not contradict the theories of Eddington and Einstein. How can we progress with this attitude?
In the current consensus model, a star is a gravitationally bound celestial body. It is heated by the process of thermonuclear fusion at its core and the variation of its luminosity is attributed to mechanical pulsations. But, in reality the luminosity of any star is determined exclusively by the strength of its magnetic field, both the internal and external magnetic fields. The strength of the overall magnetic field of any star depends on the internal structure of the star (the type of the star), its location and the external energy supply. The stronger is the magnetic field, the higher is luminosity and the higher is the velocity of the ejected particles from its surface. If we look at our star, we see that the variation of the Sun’s luminosity is correlated with the current density at the corona. During solar maximum when the Sun’s magnetic field is strong the corona is bright while during solar minimum it is dim. Additionally, the ejected particles from the Sun’s surface, such as coronal mass ejections and coronal hole solar wind, propagate with higher velocity during a solar maximum.
The periodic variations in the luminosity of these massive stars are determined by the intensity of their magnetic fields and the oscillations of the external energy supply.
The mystery of strong magnetic fields and their origin is not limited to red giants, but also to other stars – including our own. In addition to stars, an increasing number of observations have already shown that most galaxies have very strong magnetic fields.
1. Detection of magnetic fields in both B-type components of the ϵ Lupi system: a new constraint on the origin of fossil fields? First published online September 10, 2015, with the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
“The origin of magnetism amongst massive stars is something of a mystery and this discovery may help to shed some light on the question of why any of these stars have magnetic fields.” said Matt Shultz, PhD student at Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada.
2. Cool Dwarf Star Shows Off Super Strong Magnetic Field
"Astronomers have discovered an ultra-cool red dwarf star with an average magnetic field comparable to the strongest field produced by the Sun during peak activity. The lack of nuclear fusion makes the presence of the strong magnetic field even more mysterious. Magnetism in the Sun comes from the movement of charged particles in its interior, similar to an electromagnet where electric currents generate a magnetic field. As it stands, it is unclear as to where its magnetic field originates." The paper was published on 21 SEP, 2015 with the Astrophysical journal.
3. The origin and mechanism of the Sun’s magnetic field still an unsolved mystery using the current model
The origin and mechanism of sunspots, solar flares and heating of the corona to millions of degrees remains a mystery under the current standard solar model. In the past 95 years several theories were proposed, but none could really explain the origin and how the Sun’s magnetic field is generated. The Watchers
4. Super-Strong Magnetic Field Found Around Magnetar
“Until very recently, all indications were that this magnetar had one of the weakest surface magnetic fields known; at 6 trillion Gauss, it was roughly a 100 times lower than for typical magnetars,” said Andrea Tiengo, lead author of the paper on the magnetar published in the journal Nature. “Understanding these results was a challenge. However, we suspected that SGR 0418 was in fact hiding a much stronger magnetic field, out of reach of our usual analytical techniques.” WebProNews
5. Magnetic field discovery gives clues to galaxy-formation processes
"The surprising result showed a huge, helically-twisted loop coiled around the galaxy's main spiral arm. Such a feature, never before seen in a galaxy, is strong enough to affect the flow of gas around the spiral arm."Spiral arms can hardly be formed by gravitational forces alone. "This new IC 342 image indicates that magnetic fields also play an important role in forming spiral arms." Magnetic fields in the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342: A multi-frequency radio polarization study, Rainer Beck, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 578, Juni 2015, A93. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201425572
Large-scale Effelsberg radio image of IC 342. Lines indicate orientation of magnetic fields. Credit: R. Beck, MPIfR.
The Big Bang Universe is made of randomly isolated specks in a vast emptiness. In physical reality, the Universe is a highly ordered and absolutely unified entity. Absolute unity is due to the magnetic force which is permanently present in the building blocks of matter. In fact, the magnetic nature of the observable universe is overwhelmingly obvious at all scales and states of matter.
All structures, from the smallest to the largest, are interconnected by the same magnetic force. All types of emitted magnetic radiation, dynamic behavior, and energy transport from the subatomic to the cosmological, are the result of magnetic field changes and interactions.
Written by Jamal S. Shrair,
Founder of the Helical Universe
Featured image: Combined radio/optical image of galaxy IC 342, using data from both the VLA and the Effelsberg telescope. Lines indicate the orientation of magnetic fields in the galaxy. Credit: R. Beck, MPIfR; NRAO/AUI/NSF; graphics: U. Klein, AIfA; Background image: T.A. Rector, University of Alaska Anchorage and H. Schweiker, WIYN; NOAO/AURA/NSF.
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