No mysteries about the solar corona
“We know from measurements and theory that the sudden temperature jump is related to magnetic fields which thread out of the Sun’s surface. But, exactly how these work to heat the gas is not well understood – this is known as the Coronal Heating Problem.”
“Astrophysicists have several different ideas about how the magnetic-field energy could be converted into heat to explain the heating, but most have difficulty explaining some aspect of observations,” said Dr. Jonathan Squire from the Department of Physics at the University of Otago.1
I would like to remind you that if you consider the high temperature of the solar corona as a mystery, then you must also consider the temperature of the thermosphere, which is the highest section of the Earth’s atmosphere, a mystery as well.
That’s because the temperature of the thermosphere differs enormously from the surface temperature. The temperature range of the thermosphere is surprisingly hot – between 500 and 2 000 °C (932 – 3 632 °F).
However, the source of the thermosphere’s heat is radiation emitted by the Sun.
The thermosphere absorbs much of the radiation that Earth receives from the Sun, leaving only a fraction to actually reach the surface. Ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and high-energy gamma radiation are all absorbed by the thermosphere, which causes the few particles present to heat up considerably.
The temperature of the thermosphere fluctuates by hundreds of degrees between night and day and even more widely between the maximum and minimum points of the solar cycle.
And, I have to bring to attention that the thermosphere has an extremely low density, and the solar corona has an even much lower density than the thermosphere.
The low pressure of the thermosphere and the extremely low pressure of the solar corona contribute to their high temperature. Heat is defined by the amount of energy possessed by the individual molecules of a material.
In a warm gas, the particles will move around much more quickly than in a cool gas. We know that at sea level, energetic particles quickly start to collide with other particles, losing energy with each collision.
This loss of energy cools the gas unless more heat is constantly added. So, low pressure means not many particles are around to collide with, which leads to slower energy loss. That means that a low-pressure gas takes much less energy to heat than a high-pressure gas. This property of the thermosphere and the solar corona combined with the external energy supply contribute to their high temperature.
Thus, it is obvious that the external energy supply that powers the Earth and the one that powers the Sun has a vital role in the high temperature of those layers. The contraction and expansion of the thermosphere and the solar corona are related to the external energy supply?
In other words, the contraction and the expansion of the thermosphere depend on the rate of solar radiation, while the contraction and expansion of the solar corona depend on the rate of cosmic rays that power the Sun. The high temperature of the solar corona is in full agreement with the second law of thermodynamics.
Because, according to this law, heat cannot flow from the photosphere to the corona to raise the coronal temperature more than the photosphere. Conversely, heat actually flows from the corona to the photosphere. This fact is in absolute agreement with my proposed solar model.
The other important fact, that has to be realized in order to understand why the temperature of the solar wind increases as it moves further away from the solar surface, is the role of the Sun’s magnetic field in this process.
The Sun’s magnetic field is operating as a dual particle accelerator.
It accelerates the emitted solar radiation and, at the same time, accelerates the cosmic radiation towards the solar surface. In fact, not only does the solar corona work as a very efficient particle accelerator, but also the magnetosphere of our own planet. A recent study has found Earth’s magnetosphere to be a giant particle accelerator in the sky.
It is well known that a substance’s temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its particles. When a substance is heated, some of the energy absorbed is kept inside the particles, while other energy accelerates particle motion. This is manifested as a rise in the material’s temperature.
In other words, the temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the substance particles. And, since the mass of these particles is constant, the temperature rises as the particles are accelerated. Thus, it is obvious that the acceleration process is contributing enormously to the increase of the temperature of the solar material as it gets further away from the Sun’s surface.
However, natural particle accelerators exist throughout the Universe, and the most powerful ones exist in the centers of galaxies and large-scale structures.
Those super-giant accelerators, at the center of galaxies, accelerate particles to velocities far exceeding the so-called speed of light, and the M87 Galaxy is just one example.
Read, Weird energy beam seems to travel five times the speed of light.2 It is weird because it exposes the myth of relativity theory, if it can be called a theory at all, but of course, this observation shows the reality of the Universe and the supremacy of the magnetic force.
Actually, natural particle accelerators are not only associated with the Sun, the Earth, and our galaxy, but they are a fundamental property of the Universe. Read, A dozen ultra-high-energy particle accelerators discovered in the Milky Way.3
If you don’t ignore observations and get your mind outside of the dogmatic boxes, you’ll be able to see that there are no mysteries associated with the solar corona or any section of the solar body.
Supercomputer simulations are a complete waste of time and money because those simulations are based on the hypotheses of the standard solar dogma.
I have been saying for many years that the standard solar model is the greatest tragedy in the history of science and without discarding this dogma, the most important facts about our own solar system, and not to mention the Universe as a whole, are completely out of the question.
Moreover, possessing fusion power based on the current model is absolutely impossible.
1 SCIENTISTS SOLVE A MYSTERY OF THE SUN’S ‘SOLAR WIND’ PROBLEM -Space Australia – April 1, 2022
2 Weird energy beam seems to travel five times the speed of light – New Scientist – May 22, 2017
3 A dozen ultra-high-energy particle accelerators discovered in the Milky Way – Live Science – May 25, 2021
Featured image: Parker Solar Probe has flown through the solar corona and sampled particles and magnetic fields there. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.
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Bold statements against the status quo. I like it. Try not to sound so angry when talking about what the text books in schools teach. Instead, focus on the data. The whole picture story. If A is true, then B must be true, which means C, what I learned in school, isn’t true.