Sunspots, coronal holes, galactic bubbles and galactic holes (so-called black holes) are magnetic phenomena of space and astrophysical plasma.
These phenomena are formed and ruled exclusively by the process of magnetic interactions. They are the sources of high energy particles, both neutral and charged particles. During maximum sunspots activity, there is an increase in solar energy output. Ultraviolet radiation increases dramatically during high sunspot activity, which can have a large effect on the Earth's atmosphere, and coronal holes are the source of high-speed solar wind streams. When the particles from these streams hit the Earth they may cause geomagnetic storms.
On the other hand, galactic bubbles and galactic holes (black holes) are formed in very dense plasma regimes, mainly, at the centers of galaxies. These holes and bubbles are the sources of the highest magnetic radiations in the Universe. They are formed by the same physical force that forms sunspots and coronal holes. The only difference is the strength of this force. Therefore, Fermi bubbles are not a mystery and they do not defy explanation.
These giant bubbles that extend to nearly 10 kpc in diameter, appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity, north and south of the galactic center and that is clear evidence for the process that caused their formation.
Those scientists who are considering Fermi bubbles as a complete mystery, have to look to our own star to find out the answer to their great mystery. It is well known that solar flares are sometimes accompanied by a coronal mass ejection. These CMEs are huge bubbles of magnetic radiation. They explode into space at a very high velocity during peak activity. Similarly, if the center of our galaxy would become active and erupt, these enormous bubbles of gamma-and X-ray radiation would explode into great distance and the shockwaves of such colossal flare would impact the entire galaxy.
The Fermi Bubbles are two enormous orbs of gas and cosmic rays that tower over the Milky Way, covering a region roughly as large as the galaxy itself. Image credit: NASA/ Goddard
There are many indications that the center of our galaxy has erupted before and expelled a burst of energy that eventually blasted 200 000 light-years above and below the galactic plane. If the center of our galaxy erupts again and becomes so bright, life would become impossible throughout the entire solar system.
However, I have stated repeatedly, and for many years, that the highest energy particles, both neutral and charged particles are emitted from the centers of galaxies. The cores of large-scale cosmological structures can be considered as cosmic accelerators that can -in some cases- accelerate both charged and neutral particles to super velocities far exceeding the so-called speed of light (C). The denser the core of a galaxy, the stronger its magnetic field, the faster its rotation, the longer its spiral arms and the higher is the energy value and velocity of particles emitted from its core and also from its spiral arms (The Watchers). Here is the confirmation: "More recently, the IceCube array in Antarctica has reported 10 super-duper-high-energy neutrinos sourced from the bubbles, leading some astrophysicists to speculate that some crazy subatomic interactions are afoot. The end result: the Fermi Bubbles are even more mysterious than we thought." Read: Something Strange Is Happening in the Fermi Bubbles at Space.com.
The question that I would like to ask, and I will be eternally grateful to anyone who can answer it, is the following: Over the past thirty years, which solar or cosmological observation agreed with the standard solar model or with the standard cosmological models?
Featured image credit: NASA/Goddard