New activity was observed at 8 volcanoes from January 14 – 20, 2015. During the same period, ongoing activity was reported for 11 volcanoes.
New activity/unrest: Colima | Mexico | Etna | Sicily (Italy) | Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, Tonga Islands | Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka | Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Pacaya, Guatemala | Sangay, Ecuador | Soputan, Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Ongoing activity: Aira, Kyushu (Japan) | Bardarbunga, Iceland | Chirinkotan, Kuril Islands (Russia) | Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia) | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA) | Popocatepetl, Mexico | Reventador, Ecuador | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Shishaldin, Fox Islands (USA) | Sinabung, Indonesia | Zhupanovsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
19.514°N, 103.62°W, Elevation 3850 m
Based on information from Colima Tower, the Washington VAAC reported that on 14 January an emission from Colima drifted E. The next day satellite images showed a diffuse ash plume drifting NNE. On 17 January two emissions drifted 20-30 km NNE, and a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. A news article stated that an ash plume rose 600 m, and then later that day (at 1800) an ash plume rose 2.5 km. Ashfall was reported in Tuxpan (25 km ENE). According to the VAAC, on 18 January the México City MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 10 km NNE; ash was not identified in satellite images. On 19 January an ash plume drifted almost 30 km NE.
Geologic summary: The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.
Etna, Sicily (Italy)
37.734°N, 15.004°E, Elevation 3330 m
INGV reported that in the evening 14 January weak Strombolian activity was recorded at Etna's Voragine Crater and Northeast Crater. The next day occasionally pulsating ash emissions rose from Northeast Crater and drifted SE. Ash emissions continued through 17 January; cloud cover prevented observations of the summit area on 18 January.
Geologic summary: Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, Tonga Islands
20.57°S, 175.38°W, Elevation 149 m
Based on a news article some international and domestic flights in Tonga had been canceled during 12-13 January, affecting about 600 passengers, due to theash cloud produced from the on-going eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. The article noted that ash plumes were rising to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft)a.s.l. from a larger explosion and that water around the eruption was colored blood-red. In a video of the eruption, posted on 18 January, volcanologists observe and describe the explosions occurring from a vent on a new rapidly-growing island.
Geologic summary: The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Several submarine eruptions have occurred at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai since the first historical eruption in 1912.
Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
54.049°N, 159.443°E, Elevation 1513 m
On 19 January KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was elevated. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly and an ash plume drifting ESE. TheAviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Geologic summary: Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.
Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.056°N, 160.642°E, Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that during 9-16 January a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued and a new lava flow started to effuse onto the SE flank. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 200-300 m above the crater. During 11-15 January explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk Village (50 km W) on 11 January. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 160 km SW and NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geologic summary: Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
14.381°N, 90.601°W, Elevation 2552 m
In a special notice from 14 January INSIVUMEH reported that seismic data indicated weak ash emissions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater during recent days. White and blue fumarolic plumes drifted S during 16-20 January, and seismic data continued to indicate small-to-moderate explosions.
Geologic summary: Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo volcano between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.
2.005°S, 78.341°W, Elevation 5286 m
Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 18 January an ash plume from Sangay drifted SW at an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l.Weather clouds prevented satellite image views of the plume, although a thermal anomaly was detected. A faint thermal anomaly was detected the next day.
Geologic summary: The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. The dominantly andesitic volcano has been in frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5230-m-high glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. Sangay towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash from the volcano have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The more or less constant eruptive activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.
Soputan, Sulawesi (Indonesia)
1.108°N, 124.73°E, Elevation 1784 m
Based on a SIGMET, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Soputan rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 January. BNPB reported that an eruption at 1138 that same day generated an ash plume that rose 4 km and drifted SW; the report did not specify if 4 km was height above volcano or altitude a.s.l. Strombolian activity ejected material 500 m above the crater and incandescent avalanches of material traveled 500 m down the SW flank. The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Geologic summary: The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.
Aira, Kyushu (Japan)
1.593°N, 130.657°E, Elevation 1117 m
The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15 and 17-20 January plumes from Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft)a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that five explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 16-19 January. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 16 January. Inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Geologic summary: The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
64.63°N, 17.53°W, Elevation 2009 m
During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January.
Geologic summary: The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajökull icecap, NW of Grímsvötn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivötn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajökull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivötn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivötn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fögrufjöll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fögrufjöll ridge to the SW. Jökulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bárdarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions.
Chirinkotan, Kuril Islands (Russia)
48.98°N, 153.48°E, Elevation 724 m
SVERT reported that weak steam-and-gas emissions from Chirinkotan were detected in satellite images during 13-14 January. A thermal anomaly was visible on 13 and 15 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Geologic summary: The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. Chirinkotan is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SE. Lava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the north shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Chirinkotan since the 18th century. Fresh lava flows also descended the SE flank of Chirinkotan during an eruption in the 1880s that was observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow.
Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia)
1.68°N, 127.88°E, Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-300 km in multiple directions.
Geologic summary: Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)
19.421°N, 155.287°W, Elevation 1222 m
During 14-20 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakouts upslope of the leading front. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system stalled; by 20 January the front was about 650 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.
Geologic summary: Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions of Kilauea are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
19.023°N, 98.622°W, Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 14-20 January seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor and gas, which occasionally contained ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible nightly, although sometimes only in conjunction with emissions. Explosions on 15 January at 0837 and 1652 produced ash plumes that rose at most 1 km and drifted NE. An explosion on 17 January at 0704 produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Geologic summary: Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.
0.077°S, 77.656°W, Elevation 3562 m
IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador during 14-20 January. Cloudy conditions occasionally obscured views of the summit. A vapor plume observed on 14 January, containing a small amount of ash, rose 1 km and drifted SW. On 15 January an explosion generated a steam-and-ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NW. A smaller explosion produced a plume that rose 200 m. An explosion on 16 January generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. A vapor-and-ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW on 19 January.
Geologic summary: Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.
Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.653°N, 161.36°E, Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 9-16 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolicactivity. Strong explosions during 10-12 and 15 January generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-10 km (19,700-32,800 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi Village (50 km SW) on 12 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting more than 200 km W and SW during 10-12 and 15-16 January, and a thermal anomaly over the dome daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geologic summary: The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
Shishaldin, Fox Islands (USA)
54.756°N, 163.97°W, Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 14-20 January. Nothing significant was observed in clear-to-cloudy satellite and web camera images, although weakly elevated temperatures were detected in one satellite image on two different days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Geologic summary: The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century.
3.17°N, 98.392°E, Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft)a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW. On 18 January BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; low-frequency earthquakes and constant tremor were detected. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km S and ash plumes rose 700 m. The number of people that remained displaced was 2,443 (795 families). The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Geologic summary: Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.
Zhupanovsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
53.589°N, 159.15°E, Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 9-16 January. Pilots observed ash clouds rising to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 11 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 40 km SW during 11-12 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geologic summary: The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.
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