New activity/unrest was reported for 5 volcanoes from April 14 to 20, 2021. During the same period, ongoing activity was reported for 18 volcanoes.
New activity/unrest: Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | Krysuvik-Trolladyngja, Iceland | Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (France) | Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA) | Soufriere St. Vincent, St. Vincent.
Ongoing activity: Aira, Kyushu (Japan) | Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia) | Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia) | Kadovar, Papua New Guinea | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA) | Lewotolok, Lembata Island (Indonesia) | Merapi, Central Java (Indonesia) | Popocatepetl, Mexico | Raung, Eastern Java (Indonesia) | Sabancaya, Peru | Sangay, Ecuador | Semeru, Eastern Java (Indonesia) | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Sinabung, Indonesia | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | Tanaga, Andreanof Islands (USA) | Ugashik-Peulik, United States | Ukinrek Maars, United States.
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 23:00 UTC every Wednesday, these reports are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports about recent activity are published in issues of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
54.049°N, 159.443°E, Summit elev. 1513 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 9-12 April; weather conditions obscured views during 13-16 April. An explosion at 1745 on 11 April produced ash plumes that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 112 km SSE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second-highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.
63.917°N, 22.067°W, Summit elev. 360 m
IMO reported that the fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 14-20 April. Lava flowed from about eight vents and the flow field continued to expand; on 14 April a new hiking trail (“A”) had been covered. Volcanic gas emissions were at dangerous levels during 14-15 April so the eruption site was closed to the public. At about 1500 on 17 April a new vent was confirmed to have opened. It was small and close to another crater, possibly the one that had opened on 13 April. Lava was not flowing from the northernmost crater (the first that had opened outside Geldingadalur) during 18-20 April.
The eruption had been ongoing for 30 days by 17 April. Based on a report from the University of Iceland’s Institute of Earth Sciences, the average lava-flow rate during the first 17 days of the eruption was 4.5-5 cubic meters per second but had increased to 7 cubic meters per second over the previous 13 days. During 12-18 April the flow rate was closer to 8 cubic meters per second, a slight increase over the recent average. By 19 April the area of the flow field was 0.9 square kilometers and the total volume was over 14 million cubic meters.
IMO warned visitors that new fissures could open without adequate visible warning, especially in an area by Litla-Hrút, just S of Keilir, `where seismicity was concentrated. They also warned of increased gas emissions hazards. The Aviation Color Code remained Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions.
Geological summary: The Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system is described by the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes as an approximately 50-km-long composite fissure swarm trending about N38°E, including a 30-km-long swarm of fissures, with no central volcano. It is one of the volcanic systems arranged en-echelon along the Reykjanes Peninsula west of Kleifarvatn lake. The Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík fissure swarms are considered splits or secondary swarms of the Krýsuvík–Trölladyngja volcanic system. Small shield volcanoes have produced a large portion of the erupted volume within the system. Several eruptions have taken place since the settlement of Iceland, including the eruption of a large basaltic lava flow from the Ogmundargigar crater row around the 12th century. The latest eruption, identified through tephrochronology, took place during the 14th century.
Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (France)
21.244°S, 55.708°E, Summit elev. 2632 m
OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise continued during 14-20 April. Lava fountaining was visible from both cones on most days, though sometimes inclement weather prevented visual observations of the eruption site. During an overflight on 16 April scientists observed that the most distal part of the lava flows had stopped advancing. The larger and more northern cone was 28 m high. The cone at a lower elevation, about 100 m away, had two vents. The smaller cone fed lava flows that traveled though tubes and emerged after 100 m, continuing to advance as many surficial breakout flows. The total length of the flow field was about 3.5 km and the maximum width was 750 m.
Sulfur dioxide emissions gradually increased between 400 and 859 tonnes per day during 9-12 April, peaked at 4,054 tonnes per day on 13 April, and then dropped to 2,100 tonnes per day on 14 April. OVPF estimated lava-flow rates based on the gas-emission rates, noting that weather conditions could affect the accuracy of the measurements. They estimated that the average flow rate in cubic meters per second was 20 during 9-10 April, an average of 24 with a maximum value of 59 on 13 April, 12.5 on 14 April, and 6.5-8.3 during 16-19 April. The Alert Level was raised to 2-2.
Geological summary: The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.
Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA)
51.93°N, 179.58°E, Summit elev. 1221 m
AVO reported that an eruption at Semisopochnoi continued during 14-20 April. Sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite images during 13-14 April. An explosion was recorded by the regional infrasound network at 0417 on 14 April, though weather cloud cover as high as 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. prevented satellite confirmation of an ash plume. Ash emissions began during the morning of 15 April and continued through the day, drifting more than 350 km SE at altitudes as high as 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. They did not decrease in intensity, so at 1915 AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. Sustained ash emissions continued on 16 April, though the plume rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and winds pushed it N. Explosions were detected through the night and early in the morning. Minor ash deposits around the volcano were visible. Eruptive activity declined during 16-17 April; one clear satellite view suggested that activity had declined or ceased. At 1249 on 17 April AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Several explosions were recorded during 17-19 April though weather clouds obscured views. Volcanic plumes were visible just above the weather cloud deck (situated at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.) and drifted S during 19-20 April. A few darker (possibly ash-rich) plumes were visible in satellite data at 0700 and 1150 on 19 April and on 20 April.
Geological summary: Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked Mount Cerberus was constructed within the caldera during the Holocene. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the N flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the south side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone could have been recently active.
Soufriere St. Vincent, St. Vincent
13.33°N, 61.18°W, Summit elev. 1220 m
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the explosive eruption at Soufrière St. Vincent (often simply referred to as “La Soufriere”) continued during 14-20 April, though at a decreasing frequency. Explosions and pyroclastic flows were reported on 13 April, as well as lahars in the Sandy Bay area. During 14 April seismicity continued to be characterized by episodes of tremor, about 13-15 hours apart, separated by swarms of small, long-period (LP) earthquakes. An episode of tremor that began at 1135 was associated with increased explosive activity, though the emissions were gas rich and less energetic than previous events. Another episode of tremor began at 0230 on 15 April along with increased venting. Almost constant swarms of long-period and hybrid events were recorded through the day, punctuated by three brief episodes (less than 30 minutes) of low-level tremor. An episode of tremor began at 2100 and lasted 40 minutes, and was possibly associated with a minor increase in venting. For the first time sulfur dioxide emissions were successfully measured by ground-based instruments; scientists recorded 809 tons per day from a Coast Guard boat along the W coast.
Periods of tremor and near-constant swarms of LP and hybrid events were recorded on 16 April. An explosion at 0615 on 16 April generated an ash plume that rose about 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. A three-minute period of high-level tremor started at the same time and was flowed by over two hours of lower-level tremor. Sulfur dioxide emissions were again measured from the W coast, yielding a flux of 460 tons per day. The rate of LP and hybrid events dropped significantly at 2000. Sulfur dioxide plumes reached India.
Occasional satellite images of the summit showed a series of changes to the new crater, centered in the SW part of the summit crater. By 17 April an Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris scientist reported that the crater was about 900 m N to S, at least 750 m E to W, and about 100 m deep based on RADAR data. Several vents were either visible or inferred from points of emissions. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 232 and 391 tons per day on 17 and 18 April, respectively. A period of high tremor began at 1649 on 18 April. An explosion produced an ash plume that rose to 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. This explosion occurred 52 hours after the last one and was the 30th since the explosive phase started. The period of tremor lasted until about 2100 and was followed by ongoing small LP and hybrid events. The rates of those events dropped again, at around 0100 on 19 April. One rockfall was detected by the seismic network at 0139, and two were noted the next day. At 0400 on 20 April a lahar was detected by the seismic network and lasted for 30 minutes; it possibly traveled down the SE flank.
During 15-19 April NEMO reported details about the people that have evacuated. The total number of displaced people was 12,775 by 19 April, with 6,208 people in 85 public shelters and 6,567 people (1,800 families) in private shelters. There were no casualties caused by the eruption.
Geological summary: Soufrière St. Vincent is the northernmost and youngest volcano on St. Vincent Island. The NE rim of the 1.6-km wide summit crater is cut by a crater formed in 1812. The crater itself lies on the SW margin of a larger 2.2-km-wide caldera, which is breached widely to the SW as a result of slope failure. Frequent explosive eruptions after about 4,300 years ago produced pyroclastic deposits of the Yellow Tephra Formation, which cover much of the island. The first historical eruption took place in 1718; it and the 1812 eruption produced major explosions. Much of the northern end of the island was devastated by a major eruption in 1902 that coincided with the catastrophic Mont Pelée eruption on Martinique. A lava dome was emplaced in the summit crater in 1971 during a strictly effusive eruption, forming an island within a lake that filled the crater. A series of explosive eruptions in 1979 destroyed the 1971 dome and ejected the lake; a new dome was then built.
Aira, Kyushu (Japan)
31.593°N, 130.657°E, Summit elev. 1117 m
JMA reported that during 12-19 April incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. There was a total of nine explosions and one eruptive event. Ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the summit and bombs were ejected 800-1,300 m away from the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,400 tons per day on 12 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Geological summary: The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia)
1.693°N, 127.894°E, Summit elev. 1229 m
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-20 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Geological summary: Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia)
50.686°N, 156.014°E, Summit elev. 1103 m
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 9-16 April that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second-highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.
Kadovar, Papua New Guinea
3.608°S, 144.588°E, Summit elev. 365 m
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 April ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Geological summary: The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. It is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. Prior to an eruption that began in 2018, a lava dome formed the high point of the andesitic volcano, filling an arcuate landslide scarp open to the south; submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. A period of heightened thermal phenomena took place in 1976. An eruption began in January 2018 that included lava effusion from vents at the summit and at the E coast.
Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)
19.421°N, 155.287°W, Summit elev. 1222 m
HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 14-20 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 tons/day on 14 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Geological summary: Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
Lewotolok, Lembata Island (Indonesia)
8.274°S, 123.508°E, Summit elev. 1431 m
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 13-19 April. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted E and W. Rumbling was often audible. Incandescent material was ejected 300-1,000 m above the summit during 14-16 April. Incandescent material was ejected to the E during 9 and 11-12 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summit crater.
Geological summary: The Lewotolok (or Lewotolo) stratovolcano occupies the eastern end of an elongated peninsula extending north into the Flores Sea, connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus. It is symmetrical when viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano's high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Eruptions recorded since 1660 have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater.
Merapi, Central Java (Indonesia)
7.54°S, 110.446°E, Summit elev. 2910 m
BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to extrude lava during 9-15 April. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1,024,800 cubic meters on 15 April, with a growth rate of about 12,200 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of six pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.8 km down the SW flank. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 119 times, traveled as far as 1.5 km down the SW flank. The volume of the summit lava dome was 1,681,000 cubic meters on 14 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Geological summary: Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.
19.023°N, 98.622°W, Summit elev. 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-20 April there were 14-34 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatépetl and periods of tremor lasting from 5-15 hours. Two volcanic earthquakes were recorded at 1054 and 2354 on 16 April. Minor crater incandescence was visible overnight during 17-18 April. A M 1.3 volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded at 2057 on 18 April. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).
Geological summary: Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.
Raung, Eastern Java (Indonesia)
8.119°S, 114.056°E, Summit elev. 3260 m
PVMBG reported that gray-and-white ash plumes rose 50-400 m above Raung's summit during 13-14 April and drifted N, NE, E, and S. Emissions were white and rose as high as 400 m during 15-16 and 19 April. Weather conditions prevented visual observations on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Geological summary: Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.
15.787°S, 71.857°W, Summit elev. 5960 m
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 91 explosions at Sabancaya during 12-18 April. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.3 km above the summit and drifted S, SW, NW, and N. Eight thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Geological summary: Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.
2.005°S, 78.341°W, Summit elev. 5286 m
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 13-20 April. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, lahar events, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual observations of the volcano, though based on the Washington VAAC and webcam images, ash plumes were visible during 13-14 and 17-20 April rising 600-2,400 m above the summit and drifting mainly N, NW, and W. The seismic network occasionally recorded lahar signals, especially during 14-16 April. Ashfall was reported in Chimborazo (W) and Guamote (40 km WNW) on 17 April, and crater incandescence was visible through the night of 19-20 April.
Geological summary: The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.
Semeru, Eastern Java (Indonesia)
8.108°S, 112.922°E, Summit elev. 3657 m
PVMBG reported that at 0650 on 19 April an ash plume from Semeru rose 400 m above the summit and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 5 km in the SSE sector.
Geological summary: Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.
Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.653°N, 161.36°E, Summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 9-16 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
3.17°N, 98.392°E, Summit elev. 2460 m
PVMBG reported that on 13 April eruptive events at Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose 500-1,600 m above the summit. Avalanches of material traveled 1-1.5 km. On 14 April gray ash plumes rose 500 m above the summit and avalanches traveled 500-700 m down the E and SE flanks. During 15-20 April white plumes were often seen rising as high as 700 m, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Geological summary: Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic edifice is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. The youngest deposit is a SE-flank pyroclastic flow 14C dated by Hendrasto et al. (2012) at 740-880 CE. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.
Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
29.638°N, 129.714°E, Summit elev. 796 m
JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 9-16 April. Seven explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.
Tanaga, Andreanof Islands (USA)
51.885°N, 178.146°W, Summit elev. 1806 m
AVO reported that communication was reestablished with two seismic stations on Tanaga, making a total of four operational stations. On 19 April AVO changed both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level to Green and Normal, respectively, reflecting the resumption of seismically monitoring unrest.
Geological summary: Tanaga volcano, the second largest volcanic center of the central Aleutians, is the central and highest of three youthful stratovolcanoes oriented along a roughly E-W line at the NW tip of Tanaga Island. Ridges to the east and south represent the rim of an arcuate caldera formed by collapse of an ancestral edifice during the Pleistocene. Most Holocene eruptions originated from Tanaga volcano itself, which consists of two large cones, the western of which is the highest, constructed within a caldera whose 400-m-high rim is prominent to the SE. At the westernmost end of the complex is conical Sajaka, a double cone that may be the youngest of the three volcanoes. Sajaka One volcano collapsed during the late Holocene, producing a debris avalanche that swept into the sea, after which the Sajaka Two cone was constructed within the collapse scarp.
Ugashik-Peulik, United States
57.751°N, 156.368°W, Summit elev. 1474 m
AVO reported a loss of operation and communication with seismic stations that monitor Ugashik-Peulik, likely caused by snow cover. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned on 19 April, reflecting the inability to locate earthquakes to detect unrest. Monitoring will continue with the remaining seismic stations, regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite images.
Geological summary: The Ugashik-Peulik volcanic complex lies south of Becharof Lake and east of Upper Ugashik Lake. Late-Pleistocene caldera formation was followed by the emplacement of at least five Holocene lava domes within the 4.5-km-wide caldera. Most of the caldera walls consist of basement sandstones of Jurassic age. Following caldera formation the small, 3 km3 Peulik stratovolcano grew 2.5 km to the N. Lava flows from Peulik cover the caldera rim to the south and extend to Becharof Lake, 6 km N. A small lava dome on the E flank of Peulik was the source of a small block-and-ash flow. The summit of Peulik contains a 1.5-km-wide crater breached to the west that is partially filled by a lava dome. Debris-avalanche deposits cover a 75 km2 area to the NW. A single documented historical eruption took place from Peulik in 1814.
Ukinrek Maars, United States
57.832°N, 156.51°W, Summit elev. 91 m
AVO reported a loss of operation and communication with seismic stations that monitor Ukinrek-Maars, likely caused by snow cover. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned on 19 April, reflecting the inability to locate earthquakes to detect unrest. Monitoring will continue with the remaining seismic stations, regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite images.
Geological summary: Ukinrek Maars are two explosion craters that were created in an area without previous volcanic activity during a 10-day phreatomagmatic eruption March-April 1977. The basaltic maars were erupted through glacial deposits in the Bering Sea lowlands 1.5 km S of Becharof Lake and 12 km W of Peulik volcano; their location is related to the regional Bruin Bay fault. The elliptical West Maar, which was the first to form, is 105 x 170 m wide and 35 m deep. The other maar, 600 m to the east, is 300 m wide and 70 m deep. Both maars are now filled by crater lakes; the eastern lake encircles a 49-m-high lava dome that was emplaced at the end of the eruption. Base surges were directed primarily to the NW. Juvenile material from the Ukinrek eruptions was of mantle-derived olivine basaltic composition. The dacitic Gas Rocks lava domes, of Quaternary age, are located on the shores of Becharof Lake, 3 km N of Ukinrek maars and were the site of a phreatic eruption about 2,300 years ago.
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