Between June 8 and 14, 2016, new activity was observed at 4 volcanoes. Ongoing activity was observed at 14 volcanoes during the same period.
New activity/unrest: Bulusan, Luzon (Philippines) | Kerinci, Indonesia | Santa Maria, Guatemala | Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Ongoing activity: Alaid, Kuril Islands (Russia) | Bagana, Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | Chirpoi, Kuril Islands (Russia) | Colima, Mexico | Copahue, Central Chile-Argentina border Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA) | Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Popocatepetl, Mexico | Semeru, Eastern Java (Indonesia) | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Sinabung, Indonesia | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan).
Bulusan, Luzon (Philippines)
12.77°N, 124.05°E, Elevation 1565 m
PHIVOLCS reported that a five-minute-long phreatic explosion at Bulusan began at 1135 on 10 June, and generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Geological summary: Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.
1.697°S, 101.264°E, Elevation 3800 m
Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 June ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N.
Geological summary: The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.
Santa Maria, Guatemala
14.756°N, 91.552°W, Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 June explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted W. A 30-m-wide hot lahar triggered by rainfall descended the Nimá I River, a tributary of Samala River, on 13 June, carrying tree trunks, branches, and rocks up to 70 cm in diameter.
Geological summary: Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.
Turrialba, Costa Rica
10.025°N, 83.767°W, Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that activity at Turrialba remained low during 8-9 June, characterized by minor degassing, along with small, sporadic long-period and low-frequency earthquakes. On 10 June at 0830 an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater. Ash emissions and a few explosions continued until the afternoon; tremor levels decreased at 1415 and ash emissions ceased at 1457. Ashfall and/or a sulfur odor was reported in multiple areas of Valle Central including San Luis, Santo Domingo, Moravia, San Francisco, and Coronado. Tremor remained low during 11-13 June, and gas emissions rose no higher than 500 m above the crater during 11-12 June (cloud cover prevented webcam views on 13 June).
Geological summary: Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.
Alaid, Kuril Islands (Russia)
50.861°N, 155.565°E, Elevation 2285 m
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 3-10 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 7-9 June. TheAviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The highest and northernmost volcano of the Kuril Islands, 2285-m-high Alaid is a symmetrical stratovolcano when viewed from the north, but has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is breached widely to the south. Alaid is the northernmost of a chain of volcanoes constructed west of the main Kuril archipelago and rises 3000 m from the floor of the Sea of Okhotsk. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the lower flanks of basaltic to basaltic-andesite Alaid volcano, particularly on the NW and SE sides, including an offshore cone formed during the 1933-34 eruption. Strong explosive eruptions have occurred from the summit crater beginning in the 18th century. Reports of eruptions in 1770, 1789, 1821, 1829, 1843, 1848, and 1858 were considered incorrect by Gorshkov (1970). Explosive eruptions in 1790 and 1981 were among the largest in the Kuril Islands during historical time.
Bagana, Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)
6.137°S, 155.196°E, Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-12 June ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 85 km SW, W, N, and NE.
Geological summary: Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical, roughly 1850-m-high cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides. Satellite thermal measurements indicate a continuous eruption from before February 2000 through at least late August 2014.
Chirpoi, Kuril Islands (Russia)
46.525°N, 150.875°E, Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 7-8 and 12 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Geological summary: Chirpoi, a small island lying between the larger islands of Simushir and Urup, contains a half dozen volcanic edifices constructed within an 8-9 km wide, partially submerged caldera. The southern rim of the caldera is exposed on nearby Brat Chirpoev Island. The symmetrical Cherny volcano, which forms the 691 m high point of the island, erupted twice during the 18th and 19th centuries. The youngest volcano, Snow, originated between 1770 and 1810. It is composed almost entirely of lava flows, many of which have reached the sea on the southern coast. No historical eruptions are known from 742-m-high Brat Chirpoev, but its youthful morphology suggests recent strombolian activity.
19.514°N, 103.62°W, Elevation 3850 m
The Washington VAAC reported that a steam plume containing minor amounts of ash was recorded by the webcam rising from Colima to an altitude of 4.6 (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW.
Geological summary: The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.
Copahue, Central Chile-Argentina border
37.856°S, 71.183°W, Elevation 2953 m
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 June the webcam at Copahue recorded steam-and-gas emissions possibly containing minor amounts of ash.
Geological summary: Volcán Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Río Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments.
Dukono, Halmahera (Indonesia)
1.693°N, 127.894°E, Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-14 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.9-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 130 km NNW, NW, W, SW, and S.
Geological summary: Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador
0.171°S, 78.598°W, Elevation 4784 m
The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received.
Geological summary: Guagua Pichincha and the older Pleistocene Rucu Pichincha stratovolcanoes form a broad volcanic massif that rises immediately to the west of Ecuador's capital city, Quito. A lava dome is located at the head of a 6-km-wide breached caldera that formed during a late-Pleistocene slope failure of Guagua Pichincha about 50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from the central vent in the breached caldera consisted of explosive activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic growth and destruction of the central lava dome. Many minor eruptions have occurred since the beginning of the Spanish era at Guagua Pichincha, which is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. The largest historical eruption took place in 1660, when ash fell over a 1000 km radius, accumulating to 30 cm depth in Quito. Pyroclastic flows and surges also occurred, primarily to the west, and affected agricultural activity, causing great economic losses.
Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)
19.421°N, 155.287°W, Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that during 8-14 June the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. A new lava flow that began on 24 May on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's N flank had stalled; a new flow on the E flank had advanced 3.3 km SE along the National Park boundary by 10 June, and was about halfway to the top of Pulama pali. Vents on the crater floor and upper NE flank remained incandescent, and a pit just W of the crater contained a small lava pond. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow appeared to be inactive by 10 June.
Geological summary: Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.056°N, 160.642°E, Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 3-10 June. Satellite and video data showed a lava flow continuing to effuse on the SE flank, down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Geological summary: Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
19.023°N, 98.622°W, Elevation 5426 m
During 8-14 June there were 47-104 daily emissions from Popocatépetl and as many as six explosions detected daily; some emissions contained minor amounts of ash. Cloud cover often prevented observations, though crater incandescence was visible every night. During 0638-1130 on 9 June continuous ash emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. An explosion at 1117 on 12 June produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W. Minor amounts of ash fell in Ozumba (18 km W). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Geological summary: Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.
Semeru, Eastern Java (Indonesia)
8.108°S, 112.92°E, Elevation 3676 m
Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that a short-duration eruption from Semeru generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 25 km SW.
Geological summary: Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.
Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.653°N, 161.36°E, Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 3-10 June lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ashexplosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geological summary: The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
3.17°N, 98.392°E, Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.9 km (11000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, WSW, and W.
Geological summary: Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.
Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
29.638°N, 129.714°E, Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 June ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Geological summary: The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.