The "Electric Universe" is a hypothesis, a new way of interpreting scientific data in the light of new knowledge about plasma and electricity. In this interpretation, gravity plays a secondary role behind the far more powerful electric force, and electrified plasma in the laboratory provides a model for comprehending newly-discovered phenomena in space.
“Today, nothing is more important to the future and credibility of science than liberation from the gravity-driven universe of prior theory. A mistaken supposition has not only prevented intelligent and sincere investigators from seeing what would otherwise be obvious, it has bred indifference to possibilities that could have inspired the sciences for decades.”
David Talbott and Wallace Thornhill, Thunderbolts of the Gods
The "Electric Universe" phrase refers to the theory that electricity plays a significant role in the Universe. Electricity in the Universe has been identified from beneath our feet, in animals and plants, our biosphere, and out to the furthest reaches of the Universe. In general, electricity is present wherever we find plasma, and since 99.999% of the visible universe is in the plasma state, magnetic field and electric currents are nearly everywhere.
As a theory, it offers explanations of various natural and astrophysical phenomena, some of which it claims are better understood without the need for various ad hoc explanations. As with any theory, the Electric Universe makes predictions that have been tested, and is published in both peer-reviewed papers, and popular books.
The Electric Universe theory is interdisciplinary, integrating and supporting subject as diverse as the science (astronomy, geology, physics), with the soft sciences such as ancient history and comparative mythology.
Perhaps not surprisingly, the Electric Universe has also become the target of pseudo-skeptics, whose criticisms have consisted of ad hominems, misunderstanding, misrepresentation, and labeling as pseudoscience.
Key points of Electric Universe Theory
- Electricity plays a more significant role in the Universe than is generally accepted
- The Sun and stars are electrically powered by drift currents (see Electric Sun theory)
- Planetary surface features such as some craters, dendritic structures and rilles are caused by super-lightning (see electrical scarring)
- Certain cosmic phenomena are electrical in nature, including:
Today, we are seeing things in space that were never imagined. We detect magnetic fields everywhere, even in the “empty” depths of intergalactic space. Magnetic fields cannot exist without causative electric currents.
The naked electric force is 39 orders of magnitude (a thousand billion billion billion billion times) stronger than gravity. The visible universe is constituted almost entirely of electrically active plasma.
In the twentieth century the pioneers of plasma science inspired a new school of investigation called plasma cosmology. Plasma cosmologists suggest that electricity is the primary force organizing spiral galaxies and the astonishing galactic clusters now seen in deep space.
Plasma cosmology has achieved surprising success in predicting major discoveries of the space age. This new perspective does not require purely theoretical inventions like the Big Bang, dark matter, dark energy, neutron stars, or Black Holes.
In the recent history of the solar system, its electrical environment changed. Under changing electrical conditions planetary orbits changed as well.
Close approaches of planets led to powerful electric arcing between planets and moons. All rocky bodies in the solar system show the massive scars of these kinds of electrical events.
Electric discharge scarring is occurring even now on Jupiter’s closest moon, Io, and on Saturn’s moon, Enceladus.
Electrical activity continues on Mars, driving “dust devils” the size of Mount Everest – created by the electrical differential between the surface of Mars and surrounding space.
All of the dominant surface features of Mars show the patterns of electric discharge, suggesting that in the past a vast quantity of material was excavated electrically from Mars.
It was an interplanetary arc that created the Martian Valles Marineris, the largest known scar on a solid planet. Much of the rocky material exploding from Mars became comets, asteroids, and meteorites. Some of the material arc machined from the Martian surface is still reaching the Earth today.
The Electric Universe modelThe Electric Universe model grew out of a broad interdisciplinary approach to science. It is not a technique taught in universities. The Electric Universe is based more on observations and experiment than abstract theory. It recognizes connections between diverse disciplines. It concludes that the crucial requirement for understanding the universe is to take fully into account the basic electrical nature of atoms and their interactions. Strangely, this is not the case in conventional cosmology where weaker magnetism and the infinitely weaker force of gravity rule the cosmos. Such a simplification may suit a theoretical physics based on electrical neutrality of matter in Earthly laboratories but it does not apply in space where plasma dominates.
The Electric Universe model is a coherent "Big Picture" of our situation in the universe, spanning many disciplines. It highlights repeated electrical patterns at all scales that enable laboratory experiments to explain the strange, energetic events seen, for example, in deep space, on the Sun, and on Jupiter's moon, Io. The Electric Universe works backward in time using observations rather than forward from some idealised theoretical beginning. It provides simple answers to problems that are now clothed in fashionable metaphysics and mysticism. It is more interdisciplinary and inclusive of information than any prior cosmology. It points to practical possibilities far beyond the limits set by current science. HoloScience
Signature of electric currentsThanks to the technology of the 20th century, astronomers of the 21st century will confront an extraordinary possibility. The evidence suggests that intergalactic currents, originating far beyond the boundaries of galaxies themselves, directly affect galactic evolution. The observed fine filaments and electromagnetic radiation in intergalactic and interstellar plasma are the signature of electric currents. And even the power lighting the galaxies’ constituent stars may indeed be found in electric currents winding through galactic space.
It was long thought that only gravity could do “work” or act effectively across cosmic distances. But perspectives in astronomy are rapidly changing. Specialists trained in the physics of electricity and magnetism have developed new insights into the forces active in the cosmos. A plausible conclusion emerges. Not gravity alone, but electricity and gravity have shaped and continue to shape the universe we now observe.
Origins of planets, moons, stars and galaxiesIn the electric universe the systems of planets and moons, stars, and galaxies have their origin in this proven ability of electricity to generate structure and rotation in plasma. Within particular regions of aggregating mass, gravity can take over only as the electric forces approach equilibrium. The electric universe hypothesis is rooted in direct observation. The extraordinary configurations now seen in space are the result of charge differential, where gravity cannot compete with the electric forces.
The limits of Gravitational TheoryThe Law of Gravity, which relies exclusively on the masses of celestial bodies and the distances between them, works very well for explaining planetary and satellite motions within our solar system. But when astronomers tried to apply it to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, it turns out that nearly 90% of the mass necessary to account for the observed motion is missing.
The trouble began in 1933 when astronomer Fritz Zwicky calculated the mass-to-light ratio for 8 galaxies in the Coma Cluster of the Coma Berenices (“Berenices’s hair”) constellation. At the time, it was assumed that the amount of visible light coming from stars should be proportional to their masses (a concept called “visual equilibrium”). As Zwicky was to realize, the apparent rapid velocities of the galaxies, around their common center of mass (“barycenter”), suggested that much more mass than could be seen was required to keep the galaxies from flying out of the cluster.
Dark energyZwicky concluded that the missing mass must therefore be invisible or “dark”. Other astronomers, such as Sinclair Smith (who performed calculations on the Virgo Cluster in 1936) began to find similar problems. To make matters worse, in the 1970′s, radial velocity plots (radius from the center versus stars’ speed of rotation) for stars in the Milky Way galaxy revealed that the speeds flatten out rather than trail down, implying that velocity continues to increase with radius, contrary to what Newton’s Law of Gravity predicts for, and which is observed in, the Solar System.
In short, astronomers using the Gravity Model were forced to add a lot more mass to every galaxy than can be detected at any wavelength. They called this extra matter “dark”; its existence can only be inferred from the failure of predictions. To cover for the insufficiency they gave themselves a blank check, a license to place this imagined stuff wherever needed to make the gravitational model work.
Other mathematical conjectures followed. Assumptions about the redshift of objects in space led to the conclusion that the universe is expanding. Then other speculations led to the notion that the expansion is accelerating. Faced with an untenable situation, astronomers postulated a completely new kind of matter, an invisible “something” that repels rather than attracts. Since Einstein equated mass with energy (E = mc²), this new kind of matter was interpreted as being of a form of mass that acts like pure energy — regardless of the fact that if the matter has no mass it can have no energy according to the equation. Astronomers called it “dark energy”, assigning to it an ability to overcome the very gravity on which the entire theoretical edifice rested.
Dark energy is thought to be something like an electrical field, with one difference. Electric fields are detectable by the photons they emit and the magnetic fields they generate, while dark energy seems to emit nothing and nothing it purportedly does is revealed through a magnetic field. One suggestion is that some property of empty space is responsible. But empty space, by definition, contains no matter and therefore has no energy. The concept of dark energy is philosophically unsound and is a poignant reminder that the gravity-only model never came close to the original expectations for it.
Comets are electrically charged bodiesRecently, one of the country's most popular science and technology websites, Wired.com, outlined a serious challenge to a key tenet of modern cosmology. Reporter David McCandless authored the article, "They Sing the Comet Electric", which noted the successful predictions registered at the Thunderbolts.info website prior to the climax of NASA's Deep Impact mission -- the collision of an 820-pound projectile into Comet Tempel 1. These predictions were based on the belief that comets are electrically charged bodies, and not the "dirty snowballs" of popular theory. If comets are proven to be electrical in nature, this could force the most dramatic re-assessment of cosmological theory since the age of Copernicus and Galileo.
McCandless displayed an even-handedness and candor rarely seen in popular media. Most journalists, perhaps afraid of falling out of NASA's good graces, are far less likely to think independently, and tend to accept official statements from mainstream theorists as unquestioned truth (see CNN's space "coverage" for a prime example of this). Not so with McCandless, who thoroughly investigated the Deep Impact event, and imparted the facts in a fair and balanced light.
McCandless wrote: "Prior to the July 4 impact, the Electric Universe group published a detailed chain of events they expected to see when Deep Impact struck comet Tempel 1...
"The prediction said there would be two impact flashes: a small flash as the projectile penetrated the comet's electrified atmosphere, followed by a huge impact flash that would be 'unexpectedly energetic'. And that's exactly what appeared to happen on July 4, in an impact that astonished NASA investigators."
The full article may be read here:http://www.wired.com/news/space/0,2697,68258,00.html
Not surprisingly, not a single NASA scientist was willing to comment on a specific prediction by the Thunderbolts group. The one naysayer who was willing to go on the record -- Dr. David Hughes, professor of astrophysics at Britain's University of Sheffield -- offered only a dogmatic assertion advocating the dirty snowball theory. "The inside of a comet has a typical temperature of minus 100 Celsius", he stated. "Electricity on the surface of a comet? Forget about it. It's not a contender". Hughes further stated that for astronomical material to be charged electrically, it must be in the form of hot ionized gas. RedIceCreations