New activity/unrest was reported for 2 volcanoes from July 6 to 12, 2022. During the same period, ongoing activity was reported for 17 volcanoes.
New activity/unrest: Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia) | Yufu-Tsurumi, Kyushu (Japan).
Ongoing activity: Bezymianny, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA) | Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA) | Lewotolok, Lembata Island | Merapi, Central Java | Nyamulagira, DR Congo | Nyiragongo, DR Congo | Pavlof, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska | Sabancaya, Peru | Semeru, Eastern Java | Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA) | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Stromboli, Aeolian Islands (Italy) | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | Taal, Luzon (Philippines) | Yakedake, Honshu (Japan).
Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia)
50.686°N, 156.014°E | Summit elev. 1103 m
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 1-11 July. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose up to 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, and SE. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 3 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Geological summary: The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.
Yufu-Tsurumi, Kyushu (Japan)
33.282°N, 131.39°E | Summit elev. 1584 m
JMA reported that during 0247-0500 on 8 July the seismic network at Yufu-Tsurumi recorded 57 volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters 1-4 km beneath Garandake, a small lava dome on the N flank of the larger Tsurumidake lava dome at the E end of the complex. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) at 0510 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from Garandake. A total of 92 volcanic earthquakes were recorded by 1100 on 8 July; no additional events were detected through 11 July.
Geological summary: A group of lava domes rises above the noted hot spring resort city of Beppu on Japan’s Inland Sea, possibly within an ancient breached caldera. Two large lava domes, Tsurumidake and Yufudake (the highest at 1,584 m), are located at the east and west sides of the complex, respectively. Three smaller lava domes are on the N flank of Tsurumidake, including Garandake. The latest activity at both the andesitic-to-dacitic Tsurumi and Yufu groups postdates the 6300-year-old Akahoya ash from Kikai volcano. Pyroclastic flows dominated during older eruptions, whereas lava domes and lava flows are most common in more recent eruptions. An eruption about 2200 years ago from Yufudake began with collapse of the N flank that produced a debris avalanche and was followed by lava dome growth and associated pyroclastic flows. Only a single eruption, from Tsurumi in 867 CE, is known in historical time. The colorful hot spring pools and mudpots of Beppu along the coast form one of Japan’s most noted thermal areas.
Bezymianny, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
55.972°N, 160.595°E | Summit elev. 2882 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 1-7 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Geological summary: Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.
Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA)
52.076°N, 176.13°W | Summit elev. 1740 m
AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 6-12 July. Elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite and webcam views. Seismicity was low, and occasional local earthquakes were recorded. Sulfur dioxide emissions were possibly detected during 9-10 July. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological summary: The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.
Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
54.049°N, 159.443°E | Summit elev. 1513 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 30 June and 3 and 7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Geological summary: Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka’s eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.
Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)
19.421°N, 155.287°W | Summit elev. 1222 m
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-12 July, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The lake level was variable, and occasional lava breakouts occurred along the margins. Low-level spattering from the W vent was visible on most days, with material ejected no more than 10 m above the vent. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological summary: Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.
Lewotolok, Lembata Island
8.274°S, 123.508°E | Summit elev. 1431 m
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 6-12 July. Daily white-and-gray or white, gray, and black emissions rose as high as 700 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Photos in posted reports showed Strombolian activity from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater and 4 km away from the crater on the SE flank.
Geological summary: The Lewotolok (or Lewotolo) stratovolcano occupies the eastern end of an elongated peninsula extending north into the Flores Sea, connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus. It is symmetrical when viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano’s high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Eruptions recorded since 1660 have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater.
Merapi, Central Java
7.54°S, 110.446°E | Summit elev. 2910 m
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 1-7 July. The heights and morphologies of the SW and central lava domes were unchanged from the previous week, and seismicity remained at high levels. As many as 60 lava avalanches traveled down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank, reaching a maximum distance of 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Geological summary: Merapi, one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world’s most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.
Nyamulagira, DR Congo
1.408°S, 29.2°E | Summit elev. 3058 m
Thermal anomalies from lava effusion on Nyamulagira’s crater floor were identified in satellite images on 6 and 11 July.
Geological summary: Africa’s most active volcano, Nyamulagira (also known as Nyamuragira), is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu and 15 km NE of the steep-sided Nyiragongo volcano. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Documented eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous flank fissures and cinder cones. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Recent lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit as far as Lake Kivu; extensive lava flows from this volcano have covered 1,500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift.
Nyiragongo, DR Congo
1.52°S, 29.25°E | Summit elev. 3470 m
Thermal anomalies from lava effusion on Nyiragongo’s crater floor were identified in satellite images on 1, 6, and 11 July.
Geological summary: One of Africa’s most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.
Pavlof, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska
55.417°N, 161.894°W | Summit elev. 2493 m
AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 5-12 July, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with the continuing effusion of short lava flows; the lava flow was 380 m long by 27 June. Three small explosions were detected during 0315-0317 on 7 July in seismic and infrasound data. Multiple small explosions were recorded during 10-12 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geological summary: The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.
15.787°S, 71.857°W | Summit elev. 5960 m
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 4-10 July with a daily average of 20 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the summit and drifted E, SE, and S. As many as six thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Geological summary: Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning “tongue of fire” in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.
Semeru, Eastern Java
8.108°S, 112.922°E | Summit elev. 3657 m
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 6-12 July. At 0616 on 10 July an ash plume rose 400 m above the summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Geological summary: Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.
Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA)
51.93°N, 179.58°E | Summit elev. 1221 m
AVO reported ongoing low-level seismicity, steam emissions, and sulfur dioxide emissions at Semisopochnoi, though no explosive activity had been detected since 12 June. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory on 7 July.
Geological summary: Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island’s northern part. The three-peaked Mount Cerberus was constructed within the caldera during the Holocene. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the N flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the south side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone could have been recently active.
Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.653°N, 161.36°E | Summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1-7 July and the eruption was characterized by ongoing explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion. At 1130 local time on 12 July video and satellite images showed an ash plume drifting 12 km S at altitudes of 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Geological summary: The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka’s largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
Stromboli, Aeolian Islands (Italy)
38.789°N, 15.213°E | Summit elev. 924 m
INGV reported that during 4-10 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosions from four vents in Area N (North Crater area) and two vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Infrequent explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected mostly ash, with some course material. The N2 vent (Area N) mostly emitted gases along with occasional explosions and sustained jetting. Material ejected from Area N rose no higher than about 60 m above the vents. No explosions occurred at the S1 and C vents in Area C-S; explosions that were medium-to-low intensity and frequency at the two S2 vents ejected material no higher than about 30 m.
Geological summary: Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the “Lighthouse of the Mediterranean.” Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.
Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
29.638°N, 129.714°E | Summit elev. 796 m
JMA lowered the Alert Level for Suwanosejima to 2 (on a 5-level scale) on 11 July, reflecting declining activity and a reduced likelihood that tephra would be ejected farther than 1 km. The number and intensity of explosions had been variable since early April but decreased overall, and material had not been ejected beyond a 1-km radius. Eruption plume heights had occasionally exceeded 3 km above the crater rim since July 2021 but none that high had been observed since mid-April. The number of volcanic earthquakes had temporality increased on 17 May but were generally low. The public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan’s most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.
Taal, Luzon (Philippines)
14.002°N, 120.993°E | Summit elev. 311 m
PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Taal to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 11 July, noting that during the previous two months activity was characterized by baseline levels of volcanic earthquakes, weak gas emissions, and minor surface activity. Phreatomagmatic bursts from Main Crater were last observed on 2 and 10 February and 26 March. An average of seven daily volcanic earthquakes were recorded during 1 January-31 May, and none were detected after 13 June. Deformation data since January 2020 showed overall deflation. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,214 tonnes per day during May-July, though the most recent measurement was 237 tonnes per day. Minor emissions from fumarolic vents in Main Crater continued to produce diffuse steam-rich plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km. PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Geological summary: Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that have grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions have caused many fatalities.
Yakedake, Honshu (Japan)
36.227°N, 137.587°E | Summit elev. 2455 m
JMA reported that after an increase in the number of small volcanic earthquakes with epicenters near Yakedake’s summit in late May, seismicity remained elevated for a few weeks. Seismicity decreased in mid-June and returned to baseline levels. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 12 July.
Geological summary: Yakedake rises above the popular resort of Kamikochi in the Northern Japan Alps. The small dominantly andesitic stratovolcano, one of several Japanese volcanoes named Yakedake or Yakeyama (“Burning Peak” or “Burning Mountain”), was constructed astride a N-S-trending ridge between the older volcanoes of Warudaniyama and Shirataniyama. Akandanayama, about 4 km SSW, is a stratovolcano with lava domes that was active into the Holocene. A 300-m-wide crater is located at the summit, and explosion craters are found on the SE and N flanks. Frequent small-to-moderate phreatic eruptions have occurred during the 20th century. On 11 February 1995 a hydrothermal explosion in a geothermal area killed two people at a highway construction site.
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report – July 6 -12, 2022 – Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
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