A shallow earthquake registered by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) as M4.4 hit Central Java Province, Indonesia at 06:28 UTC on April 18, 2018. The agency is reporting a depth of 4 km (2.4 miles). EMSC is reporting M4.4 at a depth 18 km (11.2 miles).
The earthquake was centered about 52 kilometers (32 miles) north of Kebumen, a densely populated district of Central Java province, according to BMKG.
Image credit: EMSC
Central Java’s Disaster Management Agency head Sarwo Pramana said on April 19 that the quake which was felt in many parts of the province killed two elderly people and a 13-year-old boy who was crushed by collapsing buildings. 21 people were hospitalized with injuries.
Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, spokesman of the national disaster management agency BNPB said that the injured have received treatment at a nearby clinic and hospital.
He said 316 houses, four mosques and two school buildings were devastated, while 2 104 people have fled home to evacuation centers.
"The worst impacts were in Kalibening sub-district of Banjarnegara district as the unstable condition of soil has also worsened the risks," he said, adding that more than 200 soldiers and personnel had been drafted in for the search-and-rescue effort.
The natural disaster management agency was jointly undertaking in the relief effort in affected areas.
Image credit: EMSC
2 tewas, 21 luka, 316 rumah rusak san 2.104 jiwa mengungsi akibat gempa di Banjarnegara. Kebutuhan mendesak adalah makanan siap saji, selimut, tikar, air bersih, MCK, peralatan membersihkan puing, tenaga relawan, trauma healing dan kebutuhan dasar lainnya. pic.twitter.com/3gxbiAGpsu— Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_PN) April 18, 2018
Ratusan rumah rusak akibat gempa 4.4 SR di Banjarnegara. Sumber gempa dari patahan lokal dengan pusat gempa dikedalaman 4 km. pic.twitter.com/GSCfkTBg41— Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_PN) April 18, 2018
Gempa 4.2 SR berpusat di darat dengan kedalaman 10 km mengguncang Banjarnegara pada 18/4/2018 pukul 13:28:35 WIB. Ratusan bangunan rusak di Kecamatan Kalibening Kab Banjarnegara. Pendataan dan penanganan darurat masih dilakukan. pic.twitter.com/zKzGwMLcgO— Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_PN) April 18, 2018
Seismotectonics of the New Guinea Region and vicinity
The Australia-Pacific plate boundary is over 4000 km long on the northern margin, from the Sunda (Java) trench in the west to the Solomon Islands in the east. The eastern section is over 2300 km long, extending west from northeast of the Australian continent and the Coral Sea until it intersects the east coast of Papua New Guinea. The boundary is dominated by the general northward subduction of the Australia plate.
Along the South Solomon trench, the Australia plate converges with the Pacific plate at a rate of approximately 95 mm/yr towards the east-northeast. Seismicity along the trench is dominantly related to subduction tectonics and large earthquakes are common: there have been 13 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded since 1900. On April 1, 2007, a M8.1 interplate megathrust earthquake occurred at the western end of the trench, generating a tsunami and killing at least 40 people. This was the third M8.1 megathrust event associated with this subduction zone in the past century; the other two occurred in 1939 and 1977.
Further east at the New Britain trench, the relative motions of several microplates surrounding the Australia-Pacific boundary, including north-south oriented seafloor spreading in the Woodlark Basin south of the Solomon Islands, maintain the general northward subduction of Australia-affiliated lithosphere beneath Pacific-affiliated lithosphere. Most of the large and great earthquakes east of New Guinea are related to this subduction; such earthquakes are particularly concentrated at the cusp of the trench south of New Ireland. 33 M7.5+ earthquakes have been recorded since 1900, including three shallow thrust fault M8.1 events in 1906, 1919, and 2007.
The western end of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary is perhaps the most complex portion of this boundary, extending 2000 km from Indonesia and the Banda Sea to eastern New Guinea. The boundary is dominantly convergent along an arc-continent collision segment spanning the width of New Guinea, but the regions near the edges of the impinging Australia continental margin also include relatively short segments of extensional, strike-slip and convergent deformation. The dominant convergence is accommodated by shortening and uplift across a 250-350 km-wide band of northern New Guinea, as well as by slow southward-verging subduction of the Pacific plate north of New Guinea at the New Guinea trench. Here, the Australia-Pacific plate relative velocity is approximately 110 mm/yr towards the northeast, leading to the 2-8 mm/yr uplift of the New Guinea Highlands.
Whereas the northern band of deformation is relatively diffuse east of the Indonesia-Papua New Guinea border, in western New Guinea there are at least two small (<100,000 km²) blocks of the relatively undeformed lithosphere. The westernmost of these is the Birds Head Peninsula microplate in Indonesia's West Papua province, bounded on the south by the Seram trench. The Seram trench was originally interpreted as an extreme bend in the Sunda subduction zone but is now thought to represent a southward-verging subduction zone between Birds Head and the Banda Sea.
There have been 22 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded in the New Guinea region since 1900. The dominant earthquake mechanisms are thrust and strike-slip, associated with the arc-continent collision and the relative motions between numerous local microplates. The largest earthquake in the region was a M8.2 shallow thrust fault event in the northern Papua province of Indonesia that killed 166 people in 1996.
The western portion of the northern Australia plate boundary extends approximately 4800 km from New Guinea to Sumatra and primarily separates Australia from the Eurasia plate, including the Sunda block. This portion is dominantly convergent and includes subduction at the Sunda (Java) trench and a young arc-continent collision.
In the east, this boundary extends from the Kai Islands to Sumba along the Timor trough, offset from the Sunda trench by 250 km south of Sumba. Contrary to earlier tectonic models in which this trough was interpreted as a subduction feature continuous with the Sunda subduction zone, it is now thought to represent a subsiding deformational feature related to the collision of the Australia plate continental margin and the volcanic arc of the Eurasia plate, initiating in the last 5-8 Myr. Before collision began, the Sunda subduction zone extended eastward to at least the Kai Islands, evidenced by the presence of a northward-dipping zone of seismicity beneath Timor Leste. A more detailed examination of the seismic zone along its eastern segment reveals a gap in intermediate depth seismicity under Timor and seismic mechanisms that indicate an eastward propagating tear in the descending slab as the negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere detaches from positively buoyant continental lithosphere. On the surface, GPS measurements indicate that the region around Timor is currently no longer connected to the Eurasia plate, but instead is moving at nearly the same velocity as the Australia plate, another consequence of collision.
Large earthquakes in eastern Indonesia occur frequently but interplate megathrust events related to subduction are rare; this is likely due to the disconnection of the descending oceanic slab from the continental margin. There have been 9 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded from the Kai Islands to Sumba since 1900. The largest was the great Banda Sea earthquake of 1938 (M8.5) an intermediate depth thrust faulting event that did not cause significant loss of life. (USGS)
Featured image: Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (BNPB)
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