A major solar flare measuring X1.3 erupted from Active Region 2975 at 17:37 UTC on March 30, 2022. The event started at 17:21 UTC and ended at 17:46.
The region is located in an area that favors Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs).
A Type II Radio Emission was registered at 17:32 UTC, with an estimated velocity of 1 424 km/s. Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the Sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.
In addition, a 10 cm radio burst (540 sfu) and a Type IV Radio Emission were registered. Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the Sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.
An R3 – Strong radio blackout was registered over North and South America
Active Region 2975 has a beta-gama-delta magnetic configuration and is capable of producing more strong to major eruptions on the Sun. The chances for Earth-directed CMEs are diminishing as it rotates away from geoeffective position.
This region is responsible for numerous C- and M-class solar flares since M4.0 at 11:29 UTC and M1 at 19:23 on March 28.
Both M-flares mentioned above produced Earth-directed CMEs, expected to combine and reach Earth early March 31. As a result, a G3 – Strong geomagnetic storm watch is in effect.
Shortly after the M4 event, the 10 and 100 MeV proton flux began to rise. The 10 MeV flux reached a peak of 18.7 pfu at 14:50 UTC on March 28 UTC and the 100 MeV flux peaked at 1.27 pfu at 13:25 UTC on March 28.
Featured image: X1.3 solar flare on March 30, 2022. Credit: NASA SDO/AIA 131
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