New activity/unrest was reported for 4 volcanoes from August 9 to 15, 2023. During the same period, ongoing activity was reported for 16 volcanoes.
New activity/unrest: Bagana, Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | Poas, Costa Rica | Shishaldin, Fox Islands (USA) | Ulawun, New Britain (Papua New Guinea).
Ongoing activity: Aira, Kyushu (Japan) | Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia) | Fuego, South-Central Guatemala | Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA) | Ibu, Halmahera | Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Lewotolok, Lembata Island | Mayon, Luzon (Philippines) | Merapi, Central Java | Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (France) | Popocatepetl, Mexico | Santa Maria, Southwestern Guatemala | Semeru, Eastern Java | Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | Ubinas, Peru.
Bagana, Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)
6.137°S, 155.196°E | Summit elev. 1855 m
The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Bagana were visible in satellite images rising to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. at 0800 on 12 August and 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. a few hours later at 1220; the plumes drifted NW and W, respectively. According to a news report aid has been sent to the more than 6,300 people that have been adversely affected by the recent explosive eruptions at Bagana. The report noted that as many as 17,000 residents living near the volcano may be impacted.
Geological summary: Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia’s youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.
Poas, Costa Rica
10.2°N, 84.233°W | Summit elev. 2697 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that fumarolic degassing and lake convection at Poás were visible during 9-15 August. A small phreatic eruption at the center of the lake ejected material 5 m above the lake at 0842 on 11 August.
Geological summary: The broad vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the complex stratovolcano extends to the lower N flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world’s most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since an eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.
Shishaldin, Fox Islands (USA)
54.756°N, 163.97°W | Summit elev. 2857 m
AVO reported that the effusive and explosive eruption at Shishaldin continued during 9-15 August. Seismicity was generally low during 9-14 August with a few local earthquakes detected on some days; no significant explosive activity was observed in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images caused by a small lava flow at the summit. Minor steam-and-gas emissions were visible in webcam or satellite images, though weather clouds sometimes prevented views. At 1827 on 14 August AVO noted that seismic tremor had steadily increased during the afternoon and erupting lava at the summit was evident in a satellite image. Explosion signals began to be detected at 0200 on 15 August. By 0335 satellite images showed an ash cloud drifting NE at 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and lightning was detected in the vicinity of the volcano. The ash cloud drifted 100 km NE over the Bering Sea and may have risen as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismicity was significantly elevated during the eruption but had declined by 1322, though levels continued to indicate ongoing, low-level activity; a pilot reported that ash emissions continued, rising as high as 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The symmetrical glacier-covered Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning “mountain which points the way when I am lost.” Constructed atop an older glacially dissected edifice, it is largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. A steam plume often rises from the summit crater.
Ulawun, New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
5.05°S, 151.33°E | Summit elev. 2334 m
Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that small-to-moderate volumes of white steam-and-gas plumes were visible in webcam images rising from Ulawun’s summit during 4-6 August. On the rest of the days through 12 August weather conditions mostly prevented views of the summit. No audible sounds or nighttime crater incandescence were reported. RSAM fluctuated during 4 July-12 August but overall showed an upward trend and corresponded to an increase in volcanic tremor amplitudes. RVO warned that minor eruptive activity may occur if the trend continued and that ash emissions had previously occurred at similar RSAM levels. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1 (the lowest level on the four-level scale).
Geological summary: The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea’s most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.
Aira, Kyushu (Japan)
31.593°N, 130.657°E | Summit elev. 1117 m
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 7-14 August. Flashes of incandescence at Minamidake were observed during the night on 7 August. An explosion at 0345 on 9 August ejected large blocks as far as 600 m from the vent and possibly produced an ash plume, though weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. An explosion at 2205 on 13 August produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W. Large blocks were ejected 300-500 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Geological summary: The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan’s most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu’s largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Ebeko, Paramushir Island (Russia)
50.686°N, 156.014°E | Summit elev. 1103 m
KVERT reported that a moderate explosive activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 3-10 August. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 5-6 and 8-9 August generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted to the S and SE. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during 6-9 August; weather clouds obscured views on other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Geological summary: The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.
Fuego, South-Central Guatemala
14.473°N, 90.88°W | Summit elev. 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that 3-10 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 9-15 August, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 30 km NW, W, and SW causing daily ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Acatenango (8 km E). Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano and rumbling was sometimes heard. Daily block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), and El Jute (ESE) drainages. On most days explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 200 m above the summit.
Geological summary: Volcán Fuego, one of Central America’s most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala’s former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.
Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA)
52.076°N, 176.13°W | Summit elev. 1740 m
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 9-15 August, producing a thick flow in the summit crater. The eastern lobe continued to advance into glacial ice surrounding the crater, causing the ice to deform and crack, based on a 10 August satellite image. Seismicity remained slightly elevated throughout the week. Weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.
1.488°N, 127.63°E | Summit elev. 1325 m
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 9-15 August. Daily white-and-gray ash emissions generally rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted N and NE. Gray ash plumes rose to 1 km on 9 August and as high as 1.5 km on 11 August that drifted N and NE. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), and the public was advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone, and to stay 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Geological summary: The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, has contained several small crater lakes. The 1.2-km-wide outer crater is breached on the N, creating a steep-walled valley. A large cone grew ENE of the summit, and a smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. The first observed and recorded eruption was a small explosion from the summit crater in 1911. Eruptive activity began again in December 1998, producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater along with ongoing explosive ash emissions.
Klyuchevskoy, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.056°N, 160.642°E | Summit elev. 4754 m
KVERT reported that the explosive Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 3-10 August and a daily bright thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Lava advanced down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale).
Geological summary: Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka’s highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Lewotolok, Lembata Island
8.274°S, 123.508°E | Summit elev. 1431 m
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 9-15 August. On most days white steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit and drifted W and NW. Incandescence at the summit was visible in a webcam image from 11 August. Variable density gray ash plumes rose 500-800 m and drifted W and NW during 11-12 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Geological summary: The Lewotolok (or Lewotolo) stratovolcano occupies the eastern end of an elongated peninsula extending north into the Flores Sea, connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus. It is symmetrical when viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano’s high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Eruptions recorded since 1660 have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater.
Mayon, Luzon (Philippines)
13.257°N, 123.685°E | Summit elev. 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that the eruption at Mayon continued during 9-15 August, with slow lava effusion from the summit crater feeding flows on the S, SE, and E flanks. The length of the lava flow in the Mi-Isi (S) drainage remained at 2.8 km and the flow in the Bonga (SE) drainage was 3.4 km long. The advancing flow in the Basud (E) drainage reached 1 km long by 9 August and was 1.1 km by 13 August. Collapses at the lava dome and from the lava flows produced incandescent rockfalls and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the Mi-Isi, Bonga, and Basud drainages as far as 4 km. Each day seismic stations recorded 45-201 rockfall events and 1-4 PDC events. There 42-259 volcanic earthquakes, including 42-91 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and 56-167 tremor events, each with durations of 1-45 minutes. Sulfur dioxide emissions were reported on most days, averaging between 799 and 2,689 tonnes per day, with the highest value recorded on 10 August. There was a total of five emissions of short, dark ash plumes (called “ashing” by PHIVOLCS) during 10-12 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Geological summary: Symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the most active volcano of the Philippines. The steep upper slopes are capped by a small summit crater. Recorded eruptions since 1616 CE range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often damaged populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.
Merapi, Central Java
7.54°S, 110.446°E | Summit elev. 2910 m
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 4-10 August and seismicity remained at elevated levels. The SW lava dome produced a total of 198 lava avalanches that descended the SW flank; 15 traveled as far as 1.9 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage, 180 traveled as far as 2 km down the upper Bebeng drainage, and 3 traveled as far as 1.6 km down the Sat/Putih drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing collapses of material. Temperatures of the SW dome ranged from 180 to 412 degrees Celsius based on analysis of thermal photos acquired on 9 August. Analysis of a 10 August aerial survey estimated that the SW dome volume was 2,764,300 cubic meters and the dome in the main crater was an estimated 2,369,800 cubic meters. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Geological summary: Merapi, one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world’s most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.
Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (France)
21.244°S, 55.708°E | Summit elev. 2632 m
OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise ended at 0500 on 10 August. The amplitude of volcanic tremor (an indicator of lava and gas emissions) had declined during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 2-1, signifying an “ongoing eruption” inside the Enclos Fouqué caldera.
Geological summary: Piton de la Fournaise is a massive basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three scarps formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5,000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping, leaving caldera-sized embayments open to the E and SE. Numerous pyroclastic cones are present on the floor of the scarps and their outer flanks. Most recorded eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest scarp, which is about 9 km wide and about 13 km from the western wall to the ocean on the E side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures outside the scarps.
19.023°N, 98.622°W | Summit elev. 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 8-15 August. Long-period events totaling 19-185 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that sometimes contained minor amounts of ash. Seismic activity also included volcanic tremors (3-15 minutes daily), a few minor explosions, and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes on 9 and 15 August. A minor explosion at 0305 on 11 August was accompanied by crater incandescence. Another explosion at 0618 on 13 August produced an ash, steam, and gas plume that rose above the summit, and at 0736 an explosion produced a puff of ash, steam, and gas. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America’s 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.
Santa Maria, Southwestern Guatemala
14.757°N, 91.552°W | Summit elev. 3745 m
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava dome complex during 9-15 August. Incandescence from the dome was visible during most nights and early mornings, and occasionally from the SW lava flow. Lava extrusion continued and formed a more prominent high point in the middle of the dome that was the main source of collapses and occasional short pyroclastic flows. Daily weak-to-moderate explosions generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the dome and drifted NW, W, and SW. Explosions also triggered incandescent avalanches that descended the dome’s flanks in all directions, and into the Zanjón, Seco, and San Isidro drainages. Incandescence was observed at the crater and along lava flow margins during the night and early morning.
Geological summary: Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.
Semeru, Eastern Java
8.108°S, 112.922°E | Summit elev. 3657 m
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 9-15 August. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on most days; weather clouds prevented views on 14 August. Some of the plumes were brownish during 11-12 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Geological summary: Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.
Sheveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
56.653°N, 161.36°E | Summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 3-10 August. Intense fumarolic activity was visible at the active dome, and thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during 5-7 and 9 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Geological summary: The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1,300 km3 andesitic volcano is one of Kamchatka’s largest and most active volcanic structures, with at least 60 large eruptions during the Holocene. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes occur on its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large open caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
29.638°N, 129.714°E | Summit elev. 796 m
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 7-14 August. An eruptive event produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim at 1447 on 12 August. No explosions or ejecta were observed during this time period. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The 8-km-long island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. One of Japan’s most frequently active volcanoes, it was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, between 1949 and 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest recorded eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed, forming a large debris avalanche and creating the open Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.
16.355°S, 70.903°W | Summit elev. 5672 m
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that the eruption at Ubinas continued during 7-13 August. According to IGP a daily average of 102 volcano-tectonic earthquakes indicating rock fracturing and 60 long-period earthquakes signifying the movement of gas and magma. An explosion on 10 August produced an ash plume that rose 2.4 km above the crater rim and drifted 25 km SE and E. Ashfall was reported in Ubinas, Matalaque, and Chojata. INGEMMET noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were at moderate levels during 10-11 and 13-14 August, averaging 2,400-3,700 tons per day. Ash-and-steam plumes rose as high as 800 m and drifted E, SE, S, and W during 13-14 August. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of Ubinas, Perú’s most active volcano, giving it a truncated appearance. It is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front. The growth and destruction of Ubinas I was followed by construction of Ubinas II beginning in the mid-Pleistocene. The upper slopes of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic Ubinas II stratovolcano are composed primarily of andesitic and trachyandesitic lava flows and steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank about 3,700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits include one of Holocene age about 1,000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report – August 9 – 15, 2023 –
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
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