New activity/unrest was reported for 3 volcanoes from March 9 to 15, 2022. During the same period, ongoing activity was reported for 14 volcanoes.
New activity/unrest: Asosan, Kyushu (Japan) | Bezymianny, Central Kamchatka (Russia)| Manam, Northeast of New Guinea.
Ongoing activity: Davidof, Aleutian Islands (USA) | Fuego, South-Central Guatemala | Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA) | Ibu, Halmahera | Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA) | Lewotolok, Lembata Island | Merapi, Central Java | Pavlof, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska | Rincon de la Vieja, Costa Rica | Semeru, Eastern Java | Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA) | Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | Taal, Luzon (Philippines) | Wolf, Isla Isabela (Galapagos).
Asosan, Kyushu (Japan)
JMA reported that the amplitude of volcanic tremor signals at Asosan had decreased at around 1540 on 27 February and remained low. White plumes rose 600-800 m above the crater during 7-14 March. During field surveys conducted on 8 and 10 March sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 1,300 and 900 tons per day, respectively; these values were higher than those measured before the October 2021 eruption. No other changes were observed. JMA lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 14 March and warned the public to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan’s most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan’s first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu’s most popular tourist destinations. This volcano is located within the Aso, a UNESCO Global Geopark property.
Bezymianny, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
According to the Tokyo VAAC an ash plume from Bezymianny was visible in satellite images at 0310 on 15 March drifting W at an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l., signifying renewed explosive activity. By 0600 ash plumes rose to 6.1 (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Ash continued to be emitted through the day. The eruption intensified and at 1322 ash plumes rose to 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Satellite images showed block-and-ash flows descended the SE flank to the base, with dense, dark brown ash plumes rising along its path. Thermal anomalies were visible at the summit and at the end of the flow. At 1750 possible ash plumes rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash emissions continued to be visible in subsequent satellite images. Activity again intensified, and at 0110 on 16 March ash plumes rose to 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash emissions continued to be detected in images through the day.
Geological summary: Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. This volcano is located within the Volcanoes of Kamchatka, a UNESCO World Heritage property.
Manam, Northeast of New Guinea
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March an ash plume from Manam rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash plumes later that day and on 15 March rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W.
Geological summary: The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country’s most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These valleys channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island’s shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most observed eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.
Davidof, Aleutian Islands (USA)
According to AVO the earthquake swarm that began on 24 January in the vicinity at Davidof continued at least through 15 March with a few small earthquakes recorded each day by seismometers on Little Sitkin (15 km E). The rate was variable, though the total number of events was similar to the previous week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.
Geological summary: A cluster of small islands between Segula and Little Sitkin in the western Aleutians, the largest of which is Davidof, are remnants of a stratovolcano that collapsed during the late Tertiary, forming a 2.7-km-wide caldera. The islands include Khvostof, Pyramid, Lopy, and Davidof; the latter three form the eastern rim of the mostly submarine caldera, sometimes referred to as the “Aleutian Krakatau.” The islands were constructed above a roughly 100-m-deep submarine platform extending NW to Segula Island; the floor of the caldera lies 80 m below sea level. The islands are vegetated, but lava flows are recognizable, and Smith et al. (1978) suggested a possible Holocene age. This volcano is located within the Aleutian Islands, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve property.
Fuego, South-Central Guatemala
INSIVUMEH and CONRED confirmed that pyroclastic flows at Fuego descended multiple flanks on 7 March, though those that traveled SW, S, and SE went as far as 7 km. Vegetation and crops were impacted by the farther-traveling, high-temperature pyroclastic flows as well as ashfall, based on satellite data and field reports from staff at the Observatorio Vulcanológico del Volcán de Fuego (OVFGO). A large amount of ash also fell on homes and structures.
As many as 10 explosions per hour were recorded during 8-15 March. Multiple daily ash plumes rose up to 1.3 km above the summit and drifted as far as 20 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported almost daily in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), finca Palo Verde, Yepocapa (8 km NW). Shock waves from the explosions and rumbling sounds rattled local structures. Block avalanches mainly descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material up to 200-400 m above the summit during 11-14 March.
Geological summary: Volcán Fuego, one of Central America’s most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala’s former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.
Great Sitkin, Andreanof Islands (USA)
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 8-15 March and very low seismicity persisted. The rate of effusion slightly increased from 28 February to 11 March, based on radar data collected on those two dates; lava was extruded in all direction from the vent and the southern lobe advanced 20 m. Snow covered most of the flow except for the advancing fronts of the lava lobes and around the vent area. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images. Minor steaming was visible in webcam images on 12 March. The steaming was dense and also visible in satellite images during 12-13 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological summary: The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century. This volcano is located within the Aleutian Islands, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve property.
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 9-15 March. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N and NE. Avalanches traveled 100-400 m N and NW during 14-15 March. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Geological summary: The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, has contained several small crater lakes. The 1.2-km-wide outer crater is breached on the N, creating a steep-walled valley. A large cone grew ENE of the summit, and a smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. The first observed and recorded eruption was a small explosion from the summit crater in 1911. Eruptive activity began again in December 1998, producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater along with ongoing explosive ash emissions.
Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands (USA)
HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 8-15 March. Throughout February the main cone had broken down and by 4 March lava was effusing from multiple vents, including the tallest cone (19 m high); by 11 March lava was supplied from an embayment just N of the cone which had grown to 27 m high. Lava continued to feed the western active lava lake. Lava breakouts along the SE, NE, and NW lake margins were visible on a few of the days. Minor and slow crustal overturning occurred on the NW and SE parts of the lake’s margins during 13-14 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological summary: Kīlauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline. This volcano is located within the Hawaiian Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage property.
Lewotolok, Lembata Island
The eruption at Lewotolok continued during 8-15 March according to PVMBG. Daily white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted E, W, and NW. Crater incandescence, lava effusion, and rumbling sounds were reported during 7-10 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater and 4 km away from the crater on the SE flank.
Geological summary: The Lewotolok (or Lewotolo) stratovolcano occupies the eastern end of an elongated peninsula extending north into the Flores Sea, connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus. It is symmetrical when viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano’s high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Eruptions recorded since 1660 have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater.
Merapi, Central Java
BPPTKG reported that parts of Merapi’s summit lava dome collapsed during 9-10 March, sending pyroclastic flows as far as 5 km SE down the Gendol drainage. At around 2318 on 9 March ash plumes rose at least 3 km above the summit and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported in several villages downwind, including in the Kemalang, Sawangan, Dukun, and Selo sub-districts, and 50 people from Bale Rante Village evacuated. The total volume that collapsed was an estimated 646,000 cubic meters, making the volume of the remaining dome material about 2,582,000 cubic meters.
Overall, during 4-10 March, there was a total of 101 lava avalanches and one pyroclastic flow that descended the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank a maximum distance of 2 km. Extrusion at the SW lava dome continued; the volume of the dome was an estimated 1.58 million cubic meters, similar to the previous few weeks. Pyroclastic flows in the Gendol drainage totaled 18 during the week, and there were 17 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km. Seismicity remained at high levels with an increase in the intensity of signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Geological summary: Merapi, one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world’s most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.
Pavlof, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska
AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 8-15 March, and small explosions were detected in local seismic and infrasound data on most days. Tremor levels was characterized as strong during 8-10 March and moderate during the rest of the week. A satellite image acquired on 7 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures near the vent (likely due to an accumulation of lava spatter), and a dark lahar deposit extending 750 m down the SE flank. Minor ash deposits were visible around the vent. Elevated surface temperatures were visible on most days of the week, though cloud cover sometimes prevented observations, consistent with continued activity. On 14 March satellite images showed minor lava effusion at the vent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geological summary: The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.
Rincon de la Vieja, Costa Rica
OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 0956 on 15 March. No plumes were visible due to weather conditions.
Geological summary: Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the “Colossus of Guanacaste,” it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A Plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3,500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater. This volcano is located within the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, a UNESCO World Heritage property.
Semeru, Eastern Java
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 8-15 March, though weather conditions sometimes hindered views. Almost daily eruptive events produced white-and-gray plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted S, SW, and W. Avalanches were detected but not visually confirmed during 12-13 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Geological summary: Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. This volcano is located within the Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve property.
Semisopochnoi, Aleutian Islands (USA)
AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi’s North Cerberus cone continued during 8-15 March. Seismic tremor and sometimes numerous daily explosions were detected in seismic and regional infrasound data. Minor ash emissions were visible in webcam images during 8-9 and 14-15 March; likely plumes on other days may have been hidden due to clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Geological summary: Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island’s northern part. The three-peaked Mount Cerberus was constructed within the caldera during the Holocene. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the N flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the south side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone could have been recently active. This volcano is located within the Aleutian Islands, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve property.
Suwanosejima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 7-14 March. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 400 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 7-11 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Geological summary: The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan’s most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.
Taal, Luzon (Philippines)
PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 7-15 March. Hot volcanic fluids circulated and upwelled in the crater lake, and daily gas-and-steam plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the lake drifted SW and NNW. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be elevated, averaging 7,695-15,306 tonnes/day during 7, 11, and 13-14 March. There were 8-49 daily volcanic earthquakes recorded during 10-14 March, including as many as 45 daily periods of volcanic tremor, each lasting 2-90 minutes. One hybrid event was recorded during 11-12 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and warned against extended stays on Taal Lake.
Geological summary: Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that have grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions have caused many fatalities.
Wolf, Isla Isabela (Galapagos)
IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 8-15 March. Daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 230, indicated active and advancing lava flows on the SSE flank. Diffuse sulfur dioxide gas plumes were detected in satellite data almost daily.
Geological summary: Wolf, the highest volcano of the Galápagos Islands, straddles the equator at the north end of the archipelago’s largest island, Isabela. The 1710-m-high edifice has steeper slopes than most other Isabela volcanoes, reaching angles up to 35 degrees. A 6 x 7 km caldera, at 700 m one of the deepest of the Galápagos Islands, is located at the summit. A prominent bench on the west side of the caldera rises 450 above the caldera floor, much of which is covered by a lava flow erupted in 1982. Radial fissures concentrated along diffuse rift zones extend down the north, NW, and SE flanks, and submarine vents lie beyond the north and NW fissures. Similar unvegetated flows originating from a circumferential chain of spatter and scoria cones on the eastern caldera rim drape the forested flanks to the sea. The proportion of aa lava flows at Volcán Wolf exceeds that of other Galápagos volcanoes. An eruption in in 1797 was the first documented historical eruption in the Galápagos Islands. This volcano is located within the Archipiélago de Colón (Galápagos), a UNESCO World Heritage property.
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 9 March-15 March 2022 Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
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