Articles tagged "research"

earth

Earth’s vibrational "hum" - frequencies at which our planet naturally vibrates measured

Scientists have long known earthquakes can cause the Earth to vibrate for extended periods of time. However, in 1998 a research team found the Earth also constantly generates a low-frequency vibrational signal in the absence of earthquakes. Since then, seismologists...

December 08, 2017

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Unearthing the underground effects of earthquakes and volcanoes

Japanese researchers find predictive potential in underground changes associated with 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and subsequent volcanic eruptions. Most of what we know about earthquakes and volcanoes is based on what we can observe at the Earth's surface....

December 08, 2017

K2 18b

Two Super-Earths around red dwarf K2-18

New research using data collected by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has revealed that a little-known exoplanet called K2-18b could well be a scaled-up version of Earth. Just as exciting, the same researchers also discovered for the first time that the...

December 06, 2017

an all sky map

Astronomer's map reveals location of mysterious fast-moving gas

An Australian scientist has created the most detailed map ever of clouds of high-velocity gas in the Universe around us. The map covers the entire sky and shows curious clouds of neutral hydrogen gas that are moving at a different speed to the normal rotation of the...

December 05, 2017

himalaya koshi koshi

Earthquakes in Himalaya bigger because tectonic plates collide faster

Earthquakes that happen in densely populated mountainous regions, such as the Himalaya, spell bigger earthquakes because of a fast tectonic-plate collision, according to a new study in Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Researchers from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics...

December 04, 2017

magma as rubber sheet

When magma prevents volcanic eruptions

Why does the floor of calderas lift disproportionately without erupting? Researchers from UNIGE and Roma Tre used thermal and experimental models to explain one of the least-understood processes in volcanology: 'Caldera resurgence' A spectacular proof of our...

December 03, 2017

mantle flows

Mass of warm rock is rising beneath New England

Slowly but steadily, an enormous mass of warm rock is rising beneath part of New England, although a major volcanic eruption isn't likely for millions of years, a Rutgers University-led study suggests. The research is groundbreaking in its scope and challenges...

December 02, 2017

north texas earthquakes old faults

North Texas earthquakes occurring on faults not active for 300 million years

Study by Beatrice Magnani, USGS and other SMU scientists shows recent seismicity in Fort Worth Basin occurred on faults not active for 300 million years. The study indicates reactivation of long-dormant faults as a consequence of waste fluid injection. Recent...

December 01, 2017

toba caldera

Time between world-changing volcanic super-eruptions less than previously thought

After analyzing a database of geological records dated within the last 100 000 years, a team of scientists from the University of Bristol has discovered the average time between so-called volcanic super-eruptions is actually much less than previously thought....

November 30, 2017

parkfield segment san andreas

Parkfield segment of San Andreas fault can host large earthquakes

Although magnitude 6 earthquakes occur about every 25 years along the Parkfield Segment of the San Andreas Fault, geophysical data suggest that the seismic slip induced by those magnitude 6 earthquakes alone does not match the long-term slip rates on this part of...

November 30, 2017

Sarychev

High-latitude volcanic eruptions also have global impact

Volcanic eruptions always seize the attention of climate scientists, because the sulfate aerosols formed in the volcanic plumes may stay months to years in the stratosphere - the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere - resulting in the increase of radiation...

November 29, 2017

winter polar vortex of titan

Unexpected atmospheric vortex behavior on Saturn’s moon Titan

A new study, led by a University of Bristol earth scientist, has shown that recently reported unexpected behavior on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is due to its unique atmospheric chemistry. Titan’s polar atmosphere recently experienced unexpected and...

November 29, 2017

tornado forecasting

Breakthrough in tornado short-term forecasting

When mere seconds of storm warning could mean the difference between harm or safety, two researchers with Western University ties have developed a tornado-prediction method they say could buy as much as 20 minutes more warning time. These radar-based calculations...

November 29, 2017

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IceCube experiment measures Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos

For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos - the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with...

November 24, 2017

movement of seismic waves

Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

New research on oxygen and iron chemistry under the extreme conditions found deep inside the Earth could explain a longstanding seismic mystery called ultralow velocity zones. The findings could have far-reaching implications on our understanding of Earth's...

November 24, 2017

thunderstorms create radioactivity

Thunderstorms create radioactivity

A new study, published this week in Nature, shows that thunderstorms can also produce radioactivity by triggering nuclear reactions in the atmosphere. This may sound like the plot of a blockbuster science fiction disaster. But in reality, it’s nothing to worry...

November 23, 2017

kaolinite

New insights into processes that cause volcanism

The first observation of a super-hydrated phase of the clay mineral kaolinite could improve our understanding of processes that lead to volcanism and affect earthquakes. In high-pressure and high-temperature X-ray measurements that were partly conducted at DESY...

November 23, 2017

geomagnetic storm

Plasma space tornadoes let high-energy particles into near-Earth space

Researchers using NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) discovered tornado-like swirls of plasma create a magnetosphere tumultuous enough to let harmful high-energy particles from the Sun slip into near-Earth space. The discovery is important for...

November 23, 2017

solar flare pulse

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

When our Sun erupts with giant explosions—such as bursts of radiation called solar flares—we know they can affect space throughout the solar system as well as near Earth. But monitoring their effects requires having observatories in many places with many...

November 20, 2017

shift in ozone trends

Three decades of measurements show ozone's ups and downs

Climate scientists studying three decades of ozone measurements from seven satellites see a positive trend in global recovery after international efforts to curb ozone-depleting substances. The part of Earth’s atmosphere with high concentrations of ozone gas...

November 20, 2017

planet ross 128b

Closest temperate world orbiting quiet star discovered

A temperate Earth-sized planet has been discovered only 11 light-years from the Solar System by a team using ESO’s unique planet-hunting HARPS instrument. The new world has the designation Ross 128 b and is now the second-closest temperate planet to be...

November 19, 2017

functional diversity of forests with remote sensing

Mapping functional diversity of forests with remote sensing

Productivity and stability of forest ecosystems strongly depend on the functional diversity of plant communities. UZH researchers have developed a new method to measure and map functional diversity of forests at different scales – from individual trees to...

November 19, 2017

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Influx of Earth-bound positrons must have exotic origin, study suggests

The excess positrons arriving at Earth must have a more exotic origin than nearby pulsars, report researchers. Their results are based on observations from the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory in Mexico, which detects the shower of...

November 18, 2017

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Solar minimum surprisingly constant

Using more than half a century of observations, Japanese astronomers have discovered that the microwaves coming from the Sun at the minimums of the past five solar cycles have been the same each time, despite large differences in the maximums of the cycles. In...

November 18, 2017

forecasting la nina drought

Improved ability to predict strength and duration of droughts caused by La Niña

Two new studies from The University of Texas at Austin have significantly improved scientists' ability to predict the strength and duration of droughts caused by La Niña - a recurrent cooling pattern in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Their findings, which...

November 17, 2017

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Astronomers discover new type of cosmic explosion

An international team of astronomers, including a University of Southampton expert, has discovered a new type of explosion in a distant galaxy. The explosion, called PS1-10adi, seems to prefer active galaxies that house supermassive black holes consuming the gas and...

November 16, 2017

mount pinatubo eruption stratospheric sulfate aerosol

Artificially cooling planet 'risky strategy,' new research shows

Proposals to reduce the effects of global warming by imitating volcanic eruptions could have a devastating effect on global regions prone to either tumultuous storms or prolonged drought, new research has shown. Geoengineering - the intentional manipulation of the...

November 16, 2017

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Study shows urban trees are growing faster worldwide

Trees in metropolitan areas have been growing faster than trees in rural areas worldwide since the 1960s. This has been confirmed for the first time by a study on the impact of the urban heat island effect on tree growth headed by the Technical University of Munich...

November 14, 2017

India Monsoon

Solving the mystery of rapidly rising Indian Ocean sea level

Sea levels around the world have risen by 1.7 millimeters (0.07 inches) on average each year since 1880, but in recent years, scientists have observed a rapid increase in sea level in the north Indian Ocean. Tide gauge records and other datasets reveal the pace of...

November 12, 2017

land motion map scotland 2017

First ground motion map of Scotland, an important asset for risk assessment and mitigation

Using hundreds of satellite radar images the team, working with Geomatic Ventures Limited (GVL), an innovative University spin-out company, created a complete map of mainland Scotland. The map covers a two-year period from 2015 to 2017 and was created using...

November 12, 2017

pano 775x219

Magma held in 'cold storage' before giant volcano eruption

Long Valley, California, has long defined the "super-eruption." About 765 000 years ago, a pool of molten rock exploded into the sky. Within one nightmarish week, 760 km3 (182 mi3) of lava and ash spewed out in the kind of volcanic cataclysm we hope never...

November 11, 2017

subtropical jet

Cooling in high and mid-latitudes led to aridification in Northern Africa

Researchers from several European institutions found that northern high-latitude cooling played a role in triggering the rapid termination of the African Humid Period 5500 years ago. It is one of the driest regions of the Earth, yet, in a cave in the Egyptian...

November 10, 2017

coastal risk study 2017

Scientists identify hotspots of coastal risks in Latin America and the Caribbean

500 000 people in Latin America and the Caribbean are at high risk from coastal hazards, according to a new study by researchers at UC Santa Cruz and the University of Cantabria, Spain. The catastrophic 2017 hurricane season provided ample demonstrations of the...

November 07, 2017

air pollution

How toxic air clouds mental health

There is little debate over the link between air pollution and the human respiratory system: Research shows that dirty air can impair breathing and aggravate various lung diseases. Other potential effects are being investigated, too, as scientists examine...

November 05, 2017

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New research looks at how ‘cosmic web’ of filaments alters star formation in galaxies

Astronomer Gregory Rudnick sees the universe crisscrossed by something like an interstellar superhighway system. Filaments — the strands of aggregated matter that stretch millions of light years across the universe to connect galaxy clusters — are the...

November 02, 2017

atmospheric rivers study

Study estimates global reach of atmospheric rivers

A recent study by NASA and several partners has estimated, for the first time, the global impact of atmospheric rivers on floods and droughts, as well as the number of people affected by these atmospheric phenomena. Atmospheric rivers are relatively long, narrow,...

November 02, 2017

solar eclipse egypt

Oldest recorded solar eclipse helps date the Egyptian pharaohs

Researchers have pinpointed the date of what could be the oldest solar eclipse yet recorded. The event, which occurred on October 30, 1207 BC could have consequences for the chronology of the ancient world. Using a combination of the biblical text and an ancient...

October 31, 2017

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How glaciers disappeared from Scotland at the end of the last Ice Age

Research led by a Stirling academic, Dr. Tom Bradwell, has revealed how glaciers disappeared from Scotland at the end of the last Ice Age. Bradwell led a research team in taking samples offshore around the north-west of Scotland, and Shetland. The activity was part...

October 29, 2017

comet ison 2013

Scientists detect comets outside our solar system

Scientists from MIT and other institutions, working closely with amateur astronomers, have spotted the dusty tails of six exocomets — comets outside our solar system — orbiting a faint star 800 light years from Earth. These cosmic balls of ice and dust,...

October 29, 2017

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Jets of ionospheric cold plasma discovered at the magnetopause

The Sun and Earth both produce powerful magnetic fields, and their intersection develops a complex system of physics that determines the space weather experienced by our planet. The solar wind - a constant stream of charged particles (plasma) emitted from the Sun -...

October 28, 2017