Research - page 3

phytoplankton boom

Southern Ocean drives massive bloom of tiny phytoplankton

Scientists have uncovered the ocean conditions that support a massive summertime bloom of algae that spans 16 % of the global ocean. Known as the Great Calcite Belt, this dense group of a microscopic phytoplankton, coccolithophores, can be seen in satellite images...

December 02, 2017

mantle flows

Mass of warm rock is rising beneath New England

Slowly but steadily, an enormous mass of warm rock is rising beneath part of New England, although a major volcanic eruption isn't likely for millions of years, a Rutgers University-led study suggests. The research is groundbreaking in its scope and challenges...

December 02, 2017

north texas earthquakes old faults

North Texas earthquakes occurring on faults not active for 300 million years

Study by Beatrice Magnani, USGS and other SMU scientists shows recent seismicity in Fort Worth Basin occurred on faults not active for 300 million years. The study indicates reactivation of long-dormant faults as a consequence of waste fluid injection. Recent...

December 01, 2017

parkfield segment san andreas

Parkfield segment of San Andreas fault can host large earthquakes

Although magnitude 6 earthquakes occur about every 25 years along the Parkfield Segment of the San Andreas Fault, geophysical data suggest that the seismic slip induced by those magnitude 6 earthquakes alone does not match the long-term slip rates on this part of...

November 30, 2017

Sarychev

High-latitude volcanic eruptions also have global impact

Volcanic eruptions always seize the attention of climate scientists, because the sulfate aerosols formed in the volcanic plumes may stay months to years in the stratosphere - the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere - resulting in the increase of radiation...

November 29, 2017

winter polar vortex of titan

Unexpected atmospheric vortex behavior on Saturn’s moon Titan

A new study, led by a University of Bristol earth scientist, has shown that recently reported unexpected behavior on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is due to its unique atmospheric chemistry. Titan’s polar atmosphere recently experienced unexpected and...

November 29, 2017

tornado forecasting

Breakthrough in tornado short-term forecasting

When mere seconds of storm warning could mean the difference between harm or safety, two researchers with Western University ties have developed a tornado-prediction method they say could buy as much as 20 minutes more warning time. These radar-based calculations...

November 29, 2017

icecube experiment f

IceCube experiment measures Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos

For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos - the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with...

November 24, 2017

movement of seismic waves

Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

New research on oxygen and iron chemistry under the extreme conditions found deep inside the Earth could explain a longstanding seismic mystery called ultralow velocity zones. The findings could have far-reaching implications on our understanding of Earth's...

November 24, 2017

thunderstorms create radioactivity

Thunderstorms create radioactivity

A new study, published this week in Nature, shows that thunderstorms can also produce radioactivity by triggering nuclear reactions in the atmosphere. This may sound like the plot of a blockbuster science fiction disaster. But in reality, it’s nothing to worry...

November 23, 2017

kaolinite

New insights into processes that cause volcanism

The first observation of a super-hydrated phase of the clay mineral kaolinite could improve our understanding of processes that lead to volcanism and affect earthquakes. In high-pressure and high-temperature X-ray measurements that were partly conducted at DESY...

November 23, 2017

geomagnetic storm

Plasma space tornadoes let high-energy particles into near-Earth space

Researchers using NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) discovered tornado-like swirls of plasma create a magnetosphere tumultuous enough to let harmful high-energy particles from the Sun slip into near-Earth space. The discovery is important for...

November 23, 2017

solar flare pulse

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

When our Sun erupts with giant explosions—such as bursts of radiation called solar flares—we know they can affect space throughout the solar system as well as near Earth. But monitoring their effects requires having observatories in many places with many...

November 20, 2017

shift in ozone trends

Three decades of measurements show ozone's ups and downs

Climate scientists studying three decades of ozone measurements from seven satellites see a positive trend in global recovery after international efforts to curb ozone-depleting substances. The part of Earth’s atmosphere with high concentrations of ozone gas...

November 20, 2017

a supernova

Astronomers discover a star that just keeps shining

An international team of astronomers led by Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) has made a bizarre discovery; a star that just keeps shining. Supernovae, the explosions of stars, have been observed in the thousands and in all cases they marked the death of a star. But in...

November 19, 2017

planet ross 128b

Closest temperate world orbiting quiet star discovered

A temperate Earth-sized planet has been discovered only 11 light-years from the Solar System by a team using ESO’s unique planet-hunting HARPS instrument. The new world has the designation Ross 128 b and is now the second-closest temperate planet to be...

November 19, 2017

functional diversity of forests with remote sensing

Mapping functional diversity of forests with remote sensing

Productivity and stability of forest ecosystems strongly depend on the functional diversity of plant communities. UZH researchers have developed a new method to measure and map functional diversity of forests at different scales – from individual trees to...

November 19, 2017